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El segundo paquete contra la crisis en EEUU divide a republicanos y demócratas a 48 horas del vencimiento de las ayudas por desempleo. Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies in the same plumage group shared similar facial and underpart color patterns, corroborating previous descriptions RidgwayTodd All birds in the rufifrons group and B.

Zerzzers Sex Watch SEX Movies Indiana pussy. Sus padres fueron Ricardo Martínez y María Guadalupe Ortega, una de las primeras parteras universitarias. Llegó a Monterrey a la edad de siete años. Reconoce que, en su niñez, la imagen de Catalina Olivo influyó en su decisión de estudiar medicina. En el Hospital conocí a una señorita que estaba estudiando medicina, se me pusieron los ojos del tamaño de un plato. En ingresó al Colegio Civil. Nos consideraban locas". Aunque sus padres la apoyaron para que estudiara medicina a su hermana menor se le permitió estudiar Leyes , nunca faltaron comentarios despectivos y críticas de una parte de la sociedad. Pero nosotras dimos a entender que no hubo cosas así vergonzosas acerca de las mujeres de mis tiempos, después no sé y ni quiero saber, pero éramos mujeres muy damas, en ese sentido sin nada de colorcitos distintos ni actitudes distintas. Yo gocé el privilegio de tener el respeto y el apoyo de mis compañeros de generación. Realizó su servicio social en Higueras y su examen profesional se efectuó los días 21 y 22 de marzo de Aprobó por unanimidad para convertirse en la novena mujer en obtener el título de médico cirujano y partero en el estado. Aunque lo normal para las doctoras era poner el rótulo "Enfermedades de mujeres y niños" en el exterior de su consultorio, la doctora Martínez Ortega fue la primera en optar por otra especialidad. Entonces estaba orgulloso de que ella hubiera podido realizar su sueño. Jackson, con quien realizó estudios de broncoesofagología a lo largo de un año; después fue a Nueva York, donde se acercó a la cirugía para la sordera; en Chicago realizó otros estudios de otorrinolaringología. De vuelta en México participó en 14 cursos de educación continua en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología de la Ciudad de México y cursó un año en el Instituto Nacional de Audiología al mismo tiempo que en el Instituto Mexicano para la Audición y el Lenguaje con el doctor Pedro Berruecos Tellez, e inició cursos de consejera de rehabilitación. Una vez jubilada continuaba frecuentando el Hospital Universitario derramando el dinamismo y alegría que la caracterizaron, hasta el 1 de mayo del , fecha en la que falleció. Es bien sabido que en la mayoría de las ocasiones quienes se empeñan en abrir nuevos caminos en cualquier rama son mal vistos y señalados por los que pretenden tener el control absoluto de las situaciones. No resulta extraño que fuera el presidente Díaz quien avaló a la doctora Montoya primero para sus estudios y luego para su titulación. En Monterrey no existió acoso u hostigamiento contra Catalina Olivo y las mujeres que siguieron sus pasos, aunque se les veía con curiosidad y extrañeza. Con el paso de los años y el arduo trabajo, las mujeres se han ido abriendo muchos espacios en los diversos campos de la educación, el trabajo profesional y en particular en la medicina. Cuadro 1 y 2. Correspondencia: Lic. Sandra Elizabeth Jaramillo Tallabs. Sala Museo Dr. Avenida Francisco I. Madero Pte. Teléfono: Correo electrónico: salahistorica hotmail. Inicio Medicina Universitaria Historias de vida. La mujer en la medicina. La carta de Karroubi enfureció a los conservadores y el jefe del parlamento iraní, Ali Larijani , y el alto clérigo y representante del Líder Supremo, Ahmad Khatami , negaron los informes de abuso sexual. Tras las negativas, el 16 de agosto de , Fereshteh Ghazi , en un artículo en Rooz , escribió su historia y describió la tortura y la violencia sexual en la prisión iraní. Al Jazeera English ha formulado acusaciones de censura directa de los medios por parte del gobierno iraní, afirmando que "algunos periódicos han recibido avisos para cambiar sus editoriales o sus principales titulares". Mientras tanto, el director del Servicio Mundial de la BBC acusó al gobierno iraní de bloquear sus transmisiones al país. Un funcionario corporativo de la BBC se ha referido al conflicto de la red con el régimen como ' guerra electrónica '. Habían estado haciendo una historia sobre los disturbios y habían quedado atrapados en medio de la violencia. Mientras Lambrecht había recibido un golpe, Vandervorst fue arrestado por la policía antidisturbios. Cuando Lambrecht fue a ver a dónde llevaban a Vandervorst, también fue arrestado de inmediato. Ambos fueron llevados al Ministerio de Información y detenidos en el sótano. Ambos fueron liberados después de dos horas con instrucciones estrictas de no hacer fotos ni grabaciones de las protestas. Al mismo tiempo, dos reporteros holandeses de Nova también fueron arrestados y deportados. El 16 de junio, el Ministerio de Cultura emitió una directiva que prohíbe a todos los medios extranjeros salir de sus oficinas. La televisión dirigida por el gobierno iraní no se vio afectada por las restricciones. El 20 de junio, el Ministerio de Cultura intensificó las restricciones al prohibir a los medios internacionales informar sobre las manifestaciones por completo a menos que recibieran permiso de las autoridades iraníes. La Federación Internacional de Periodistas emitió un comunicado criticando al gobierno iraní por el cierre forzado de la Asociación de Periodistas Iraníes y pidiendo la libertad de prensa. Ahmadinejad respondió a las preocupaciones sobre las libertades civiles afirmando que los iraníes disfrutaban de "libertad absoluta" de expresión. Los periódicos van y vienen y reaparecen. No se preocupe por eso". El 5 de julio de , el Sunday Times informó que los medios estatales iraníes han estado transmitiendo "confesiones" de los manifestantes contra el presunto fraude del voto presidencial alegando que lo hicieron bajo la influencia de la Voz de América, la BBC y otros medios extranjeros. Después de los ataques, el gobierno detuvo el acceso a Internet. Cuando miles de simpatizantes de la oposición se enfrentaron con la policía el 13 de junio, Facebook se filtró nuevamente. Algunos sitios web de noticias también fueron bloqueados por las autoridades iraníes. Los servicios de telefonía móvil, incluidos los mensajes de texto, también se habían detenido o se habían vuelto muy difíciles de usar desde el día anterior a las elecciones. Específicamente, todos los sitios web afiliados a la BBC fueron bloqueados, así como aquellos afiliados a The Guardian. Associated Press calificó las acciones como "medidas ominosas que aparentemente buscan socavar las voces liberales". Un software anti-censura, Freegate , desarrollado por Global Internet Freedom Consortium , fue ampliamente utilizado y demostró ser efectivo. Google Scholar. Baldassarre , D. Webster Experimental evidence that extra-pair mating drives asymmetrical introgression of a sexual trait. Biological Sciences : Bastien , G. Ecogeographical and climatic predictors of geographical variation in plumage and morphology in Rufous-capped Warblers, Basileuterus rufifrons. Honours thesis, University of Windsor , Ontario, Canada. Google Preview. Benites , P. Campagna , and P. Tubaro Song-based species discrimination in a rapid Neotropical radiation of grassland seedeaters. Journal of Avian Biology 46 : 55 — Benjamini , Y. Hochberg Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Benkman , C. Divergent selection drives the adaptive radiation of crossbills. Evolution 57 : — Burns , K. Shultz Widespread cryptic dichromatism and ultraviolet reflectance in the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds: Implications of accounting for avian vision in the study of plumage evolution. The Auk : — Cadena , C. Cuervo Molecules, ecology, morphology, and songs in concert: How many species is Arremon torquatus Aves: Emberizidae? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99 : — Klicka , and R. Ricklefs Evolutionary differentiation in the Neotropical montane region: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches Aves, Emberizidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44 : — Catchpole , C. Slater Bird Song: Biological Themes and Variations , 2nd edition. Curson , J. Family Parulidae New World Warblers. In Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. Elliot , and D. Christie , Editors. Lynx Edicions , Barcelona, Spain. Demko , A. Mennill Male and female signaling behavior varies seasonally during territorial interactions in a tropical songbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 72 : Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons show seasonal, temporal and annual variation in song use. Ibis : — Sosa-López , and D. Subspecies discrimination on the basis of acoustic signals: A playback experiment in a Neotropical songbird. Animal Behaviour : 77 — Sosa-López , R. Simpson , S. Doucet , and D. Data from: Divergence in plumage, voice, and morphology indicates speciation in Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons. The Auk: Ornithological Advances : 1 — Dingle , C. Poelstra , W. Halfwerk , D. Brinkhuizen , and H. Slabbekoorn Asymmetric response patterns to subspecies-specific song differences in allopatry and parapatry in the gray-breasted wood-wren. Evolution 64 : — Doucet , S. Hill Do museum specimens accurately represent wild birds? A case study of carotenoid, melanin, and structural colours in long-tailed manakins Chiroxiphia linearis. Journal of Avian Biology 40 : — Mennill , and G. The evolution of signal design in Manakin plumage ornaments. The American Naturalist : S62 — S Eaton , M. Avian visual perspective on plumage coloration confirms rarity of sexually monochromatic North American passerines. Endler , J. Mielke Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 86 : — Théry Interacting effects of lek placement, display behavior, ambient light, and color patterns in three Neotropical forest-dwelling birds. The American Naturalist : — Francis , C. Guralnick Fitting the bill: Do different winter food resources influence juniper titmouse Baeolophus ridgwayi bill morphology? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society : — Freile , J. Greeney , and E. Bonaccorso Current Neotropical ornithology: Research progress — The Condor: Ornithological Applications : 84 — Friedmann , H. Griscom , R. Moore , and A. Miller Distributional check-list of the birds of Mexico, Part II. Pacific Coast Avifauna 33 : Gil , D. Song organisation and singing patterns of the Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus. Behaviour : — Goldsmith , T. Optimization, constraint, and history in the evolution of eyes. The Quarterly Review of Biology 65 : — Ornelas , and C. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: Genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the Wedge-tailed Sabrewing Campylopterus curvipennis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11 : Graham , B. Sandoval , T. Dabelsteen , and D. A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis in three types of tropical forest: Degradation of male and female Rufous-and-white Wren songs. Bioacoustics 26 : 37 — Haig , S. Avian subspecies and the U. S Endangered Species Act. In Avian Subspecies F. James, Editor. Ornithological Monographs 67 : 24 — Halley , M. Klicka , P. Clee , and J. Weckstein Restoring the species status of Catharus maculatus Aves: Turdidae , a secretive Andean thrush, with a critique of the yardstick approach to species delimitation. Guaidó quiere instalar en Jerusalén la embajada de Venezuela en Israel. Estados Unidos registró otras 1. Trump anunció un acuerdo con la empresa Kodak para convertirla en una farmacéutica. La vicepresidente de Colombia propuso que las mujeres también cumplan servicio militar obligatorio y desató una polémica. Turnos, protocolo y expectativas: cómo fue la reapertura de las galerías de arte porteñas. El imponente despliegue del comercio electrónico en el contexto de pandemia. En economía, por ahora, domina la ausencia de un mapa o un destino. El vicegobernador de la provincia de Chaharmahal y Bajtiarí, Yafar Mardani, ha confirmado a la agencia oficial IRNA que los servicios de rescate han recuperado la caja negra y los cuerpos de diez de las once tripulantes - tres de ellos personal de cabina - de la nave privada siniestrada. Regresaban de la despedida de soltera de Mina Basaran, hija de un famoso empresario turco..

Some individuals of 2 rufifrons group subspecies By contrast, all birds in the delattrii group had all-yellow breasts and Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord. Rufous-capped Warblers differed in coloration between plumage groups in all 10 spectrally measured plumage patches Supplementary Material Table S4.

The crowns of the rufifrons group and B. Using values collected with reflectance spectrometry, the crowns of the delattrii group had significantly more red-shifted color i. The rufifrons group had more saturated crowns i. Overall crown color, as measured read more Euclidean distances units in JNDs between patches, differed between both sexes of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, and between males of the delattrii group and B.

Plumage color descriptions by body region in B. Euclidean distances in just noticeable differences JNDs between plumage groups for male and female Rufous-capped Warblers.

The throats and upper breasts of the rufifrons group and B. By contrast, the delattrii group had golden yellow throats, breasts, and bellies Table 2. For the belly, all 3 groups differed significantly in hue theta, hue phi, and r achieved, with the delattrii group Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord the highest values i. Overall belly color was perceptually different between both sexes of all 3 groups Table 3.

For the breast, the delattrii group and B. UV reflectance hue phi differed significantly across all 3 groups, with the delattrii group having Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord highest values and the rufifrons group having the lowest values. Finally, the delattrii group had significantly higher luminance values than both the rufifrons group and B.

The rufifrons group differed perceptually in overall breast color from both the delattrii group and B. For the throat, there were no significant differences in hue theta or luminance, although r achieved differed significantly across all 3 groups, with B.

Overall throat color differed perceptually between both sexes of the delattrii group and B. Rufous-capped Warblers show plumage color differences between the delattrii group yellowrufifrons Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord grayand B. Four color features are shown for both males and females: hue theta Ahue phi Br achieved Cand luminance Dbetween the bellies of Rufous-capped Warblers of the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. Remaining plumage patches are shown in the Supplementary Material.

The mantle color varied from olive in the delattrii group to olive-gray in the rufifrons group, whereas B. The delattrii group had significantly more saturated, less bright mantles i. Hue theta and hue phi differed significantly between all 3 groups, with the highest values, or most green-shifted color, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or most yellow-shifted color, for the rufifrons group Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figure Go here. Overall mantle color differed perceptually between the rufifrons group and both the delattrii group and B.

The napes of the rufifrons group and B. All 3 groups differed significantly in hue theta and hue phi, with the highest values, or green-shifted color with higher UV reflectance, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or yellow-shifted color with lower UV reflectance, for the rufifrons group. Luminance was higher for both the rufifrons group and B.

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Overall nape color differed perceptually between the delattrii and rufifrons groups, whereas B. The rumps and shoulders of the delattrii group and B. For more info patches, all 3 groups differed in hue theta and hue phi, with the highest values, or green-shifted color with higher UV reflectance, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or yellow-shifted color with lower UV reflectance, for the rufifrons group. For the rump, the delattrii group had more saturated color higher r achieved than the rufifrons group and B.

The groups did not differ in luminance for either rump or shoulder, or in r achieved for shoulder Supplementary Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord Tables S4, S5 ; Figures S6, S7. All 3 groups were perceptually different in overall rump color except for males of the delattrii group and B. Overall shoulder color differed perceptually between both sexes of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, and between females of the rufifrons group and B.

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The tail and wing patches were dusky gray in all individuals, with yellow-green feather borders in the rufifrons group and B. For the tail, the delattrii group had higher UV reflectance hue phi and lower r achieved than both the rufifrons group and B.

The luminance was higher for B. However, overall tail color was perceptually similar between all 3 groups based on Euclidean distances in JNDs Table 3. For the wing, all 3 groups differed in UV reflectance hue phiwith the delattrii group having the highest and the rufifrons group having the lowest values, and for r achieved and luminance, with B. The delattrii group had higher hue theta values, or more green-shifted color, than the rufifrons group Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figure S9.

Overall wing color was Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord different between the delattrii group and B. Using the bootstrap resampling analysis to further test whether plumage patches were perceptually distinct to the warblers in addition to our Euclidean distance analyses abovethe belly color was perceptually distinct between all 3 groups.

For the breast and mantle, the rufifrons group was perceptually distinct from both the delattrii group and B. For the crown, nape, and rump, only the delattrii and rufifrons groups were perceptually distinct. For the wing, only the delattrii group and B. For the shoulder, tail, and throat, none of the Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord were perceptually distinct from one another.

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Rufous-capped Warbler plumage color differed significantly between the sexes for the crown, mantle, nape, tail, and wing Supplementary Material Table S4. Males of all 3 groups had greater UV reflectance in the crown and tail i.

There were significant collection year effects for all plumage patches, indicating an influence of specimen age on reflectance. Hue theta values decreased significantly towards zero with age for all plumage patches except for the crown and tail; in other words, hue became more yellow-shifted with increased specimen age. The amount of UV reflectance hue phi decreased significantly with increased age for all plumage patches. The saturation r achieved increased significantly with age for the belly, breast, crown, nape, rump, shoulder, and tail, whereas it decreased significantly for the throat and was learn more here across ages for the mantle and wing.

Brightness luminance decreased significantly with age for the belly, breast, and throat; increased with age for the Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord, tail, and wing; and was similar across ages for the mantle, nape, rump, and shoulder Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5.

Results of the 3-subspecies plumage analyses showed similar patterns and are presented link Supplementary Material Appendix D. Rufous-capped Warbler songs differed significantly in both acoustic structure and organization among plumage groups Table 4with the delattrii group being well-differentiated from the rufifrons group and B.

For 13 of the 14 measured variables, the delattrii group differed significantly from the rufifrons group and B. Positive loadings corresponded to song duration, number of syllables, and syllable production rate, whereas negative loadings corresponded to all other variables Supplementary Material Table S2. Therefore, songs with positive PC1 scores rufifrons group and B. Songs with negative PC1 scores delattrii group; Figure 5BDF were shorter and slower paced, had fewer syllables but more variety of syllable types, were higher in frequency at both Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord song and syllable level, and had longer, wider bandwidth syllables.

Vocal measurements of male Rufous-capped Warbler songs by plumage group delattrii group, more info group, and B. All variables were significantly different between the delattrii group and both the rufifrons group and B.

Song spectrograms of Rufous-capped Warbler male songs: allopatric B. Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord of rufifrons group AE and B. Songs from sympatric B. Male songs of Rufous-capped Warblers in the delattrii group were distinct from those of the rufifrons group and B. Individuals of both sympatric B. Discriminant analysis results also showed that delattrii group songs differed from rufifrons group and B.

The most diagnostic trait according to discriminant analysis was the syllable versatility index the ratio of the number source different syllable types to the total number of syllableswhich correctly classified Most delattrii group songs All rufifrons group 75 of 75 and B. Although female song output is lower than male song output in Rufous-capped Warblers Demko and Mennillwe detected female songs in all 3 groups.

Male and female rufifrons group and B. In comparison with male songs, female songs were shorter with higher maximum frequency and bandwidth. Syllables of female source were also shorter, with higher maximum frequency, peak frequency, and bandwidth, than male syllables.

Although female songs had fewer syllables than male songs, they had a greater variety of syllable types i. Male and female songs shared similar song and syllable minimum frequency, song peak frequency, number of syllable types, and syllable production rate Figure 7. In contrast to female delattrii group songs, which have similar syllable types as male songs Demko and Mennillfemale rufifrons group songs are structurally Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord from those of males Figure 7.

Vocal measurements of male and female rufifrons group and B.

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Male and female songs differed significantly in 9 of the 14 measured variables highlighted in bold. Song spectrograms of male and female Rufous-capped Warbler songs of the B. Female songs and syllables are shorter, have higher maximum and peak frequency, and larger bandwidth than male songs. Based on data collected from live birds, museum specimens, and archived sound recordings sampled across the range of Rufous-capped Warblers, we found considerable differences between Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord delattrii and rufifrons groups of subspecies in morphology, plumage pattern, plumage color, and song.

Our analyses also show that B. This suggests that Rufous-capped Warblers comprise 2 distinct groups: delattrii and rufifrons - salvini. Our results align with historical taxonomic groupings based upon morphology and plumage color Todd and recent evidence based on field observations Howell and Webb rather than the current classification as a single species Monroe Additionally, the vocal divergence between the delattrii and rufifrons - salvini groups, described for the first time in our study, provides further evidence of source between the 2 groups.

Overall, our morphological analyses suggest that the delattrii group is distinct from the rufifrons group and B. Interestingly, the groups also differ in body shape as well as size. Our wing-tail difference measurements corroborate the analyses of Toddwho also noted that all rufifrons group subspecies as well as B. Furthermore, our discriminant analysis results suggest that B. The discriminant analysis of all 8 subspecies further supports the separation of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, as most of the incorrect assignments for a given subspecies were to another subspecies within the same group.

Our morphological analyses did reveal some overlap between plumage groups, since the only diagnosable trait was the difference in wing length between the delattrii group and B. The overlap between groups may be attributable to the similar overall size of all Basileuterus warblers Curson Although not explicitly tested in our study, particular subspecies or populations may also be locally adapted to specific diets, which could explain why traits related to foraging e.

Another possibility is that morphological divergence is an adaptation to variation in see more or other climatic variables. Indeed, a separate study testing ecogeographic rules using the same museum dataset found that Rufous-capped Warblers living in regions with lower average annual temperatures had longer wings and tails than those living in warmer regions Bastien Further studies should assess these relationships within each subspecies, and, in particular, investigate whether the unique morphological features of B.

We found that plumage color varies more than morphology among Rufous-capped Warblers, and that the differences between plumage groups vary depending on the plumage patch examined.

According to our most conservative Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord, which assessed perceptual distinctiveness between plumage groups, the belly was the only distinct patch between all 3 groups. For the crown, nape, and rump, the delattrii and rufifrons groups were both distinct from one another, whereas B. For the breast and mantle, the delattrii group and B. Unlike the morphological comparisons, Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord plumage patches were perceptually similar between the rufifrons group and B.

Our use of spectral measurements to analyze plumage color revealed that UV reflectance differed among plumage groups, with the delattrii group having higher overall UV reflectance i. Previous Rufous-capped Warbler taxonomic comparisons qualitatively described plumage colors and classified each subspecies based on their geographical ranges and subtle color variation relative Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord the reference subspecies B.

Our analyses used quantitative spectrometry and avian visual models to confirm the overall differences and similarities in plumage characteristics described by earlier researchers, while also providing new insights into color variation which is invisible to human eyes e.

The large variation in plumage coloration among subspecies and plumage groups could result from ecological selection, wherein plumage color evolves to maximize either conspicuousness or crypsis relative to the environment Endler and ThéryDoucet et al. All 3 plumage groups have particular habitat preferences; the rufifrons group prefers dry, open habitats, the delattrii group prefers dry to semi-humid, forested sites, and B.

In the forested habitat of the delattrii group, olive-green upperparts would be more cryptic, whereas a deep red crown and yellow breast, which are potentially sexually selected signals, would be more conspicuous e. Furthermore, female mating preferences Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord result in plumage features such as a yellow B. A similar scenario occurred when yellow collar color introgressed into white-collared populations across a hybrid zone between Golden-collared Manakins Manacus vitellinus and White-collared Manakins M.

However, since no confirmed hybrids exist between B. An intriguing finding of our plumage please click for source was that although Rufous-capped Warblers appear sexually monochromatic to humans, several plumage patches are in fact sexually dichromatic. We found that females of the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. The presence of sexual dichromatism suggests that the crown may be a signal used in mate choice or sex recognition.

Mate choice experiments using visual models of warblers with varying crown colors Baldassarre and Webster may be useful to further explore the role of these plumage patches as mating signals. Other sex-specific differences were found only in the delattrii group, providing further evidence that the delattrii group is distinct from the rufifrons group and B.

Miguel F. A pesar de que no solía asistir a eventos sociales, perteneció a sociedades médicas e incluso fue una de las fundadoras de la Asociación de Médicas de Nuevo León en Después de este homenaje se le detectó a Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord Olivo una enfermedad que por desgracia resultó terminal.

Me decía -No te vayas -apenas podía hablar- no te vayas. Pero comprendí como a las ocho de la noche que ya era imprudente estar ahí y me retiré; creo que dos horas después murió.

Sexchat 321 Watch SEX Movies Porntube ccom. Se han concluido 11 pozos, cinco terrestres, dos en aguas someras y cuatro en aguas profundas y ultra profundas, con una inversión total de USD Estados Unidos anunció la retirada de unos Minuto a minuto: la audiencia de Emilio Lozoya por el caso Odebrecht. Desde la cama del hospital en donde se encuentra internado, el ex director de Pemex en el sexenio de Enrique Peña Nieto presenta sus argumentos de defensa. El segundo paquete contra la crisis en EEUU divide a republicanos y demócratas a 48 horas del vencimiento de las ayudas por desempleo. Mientras el gobierno propone un recorte sustancial de los subsidios para incentivar a los despedidos a volver al mercado laboral, la oposición pide mantener los beneficios para impulsar el consumo y evitar que sigan subiendo los contagios de coronavirus. La Fiscalía chavista imputó a seis personas por el asesinato de un manifestante durante una protesta por falta de gasolina en Venezuela. Un software anti-censura, Freegate , desarrollado por Global Internet Freedom Consortium , fue ampliamente utilizado y demostró ser efectivo. Sin embargo, los activistas en línea del Movimiento Verde iraní continuaron su activismo político y resistieron la represión en línea mediante la adopción de diferentes estrategias como: " 1 desidentificación, 2 reforma de la red, 3 elusión, 4 autocensura y 5 ser discretamente activo ". Dijo que aunque no creía que los líderes de la oposición estuvieran trabajando como agentes de gobiernos extranjeros, sí creía que las protestas estaban organizadas y planificadas, posiblemente sin el conocimiento de la oposición política iraní. El 16 de junio, Der Spiegel citó a Voice of America informando que el gobierno iraní había reclutado hasta 5, combatientes libaneses de Hezbollah para enfrentarse con los manifestantes. Varios intelectuales iraníes organizaron una huelga de hambre de tres días frente a las Naciones Unidas. La invitación fue firmada por 42 estudiosos. El evento estaba programado para el 22 y 24 de julio de El ciudadano estadounidense Noam Chomsky estuvo presente en la huelga de hambre. Varios iraníes organizaron una huelga de dos días en Brandenburger Tor en Berlín, Alemania. El evento estaba programado para el 24 y 25 de julio de Entre los huelguistas estaba Daryush Shokof. Las huelgas de hambre son por la libertad de todos los presos políticos iraníes y por "no" reconocer las elecciones presidenciales y su presidente Mahmoud Ahmadinejad en Robert Redford se unió y apoyó la huelga de hambre en Washington el 20 de julio. BBC News describió la reacción general de la comunidad internacional a las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de como "silenciada". Su portavoz, Mohsen Makhmalbaf , criticó al presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, por mantener que la diferencia entre Ahmadinejad y Mousavi "puede no ser tan grande como se ha anunciado". Los manifestantes se han reunido en ciudades de todo el mundo para protestar. La violencia y los resultados electorales. Aunque las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de fueron ampliamente disputadas, el secretario general de la ONU, Ban Ki-moon, envió un mensaje de felicitación tradicional a Ahmadinejad tras su toma de posesión. En otro incidente, la activista prominente Akbar Ganji inició una huelga de hambre durante tres días frente a la ONU. Durante el descanso, se les ordenó retirarlos, siete de los ocho cumplieron. Posteriormente fueron suspendidos. Asimismo, el futbolista italiano Francesco Totti envió un mensaje de saludo a la juventud iraní durante las protestas. Un grupo de "artistas y escritores iraníes en el exilio" iraníes publicó una carta abierta en apoyo de las protestas. Se han llevado a cabo importantes protestas en las principales ciudades de todo el mundo. The Economist informó que los partidarios de Mousavi han alistado el simbolismo religioso de su lado. Esto apela directamente a la noción de injusticia y redención en el corazón del Islam chiíta. Most delattrii group songs All rufifrons group 75 of 75 and B. Although female song output is lower than male song output in Rufous-capped Warblers Demko and Mennill , we detected female songs in all 3 groups. Male and female rufifrons group and B. In comparison with male songs, female songs were shorter with higher maximum frequency and bandwidth. Syllables of female songs were also shorter, with higher maximum frequency, peak frequency, and bandwidth, than male syllables. Although female songs had fewer syllables than male songs, they had a greater variety of syllable types i. Male and female songs shared similar song and syllable minimum frequency, song peak frequency, number of syllable types, and syllable production rate Figure 7. In contrast to female delattrii group songs, which have similar syllable types as male songs Demko and Mennill , female rufifrons group songs are structurally distinct from those of males Figure 7. Vocal measurements of male and female rufifrons group and B. Male and female songs differed significantly in 9 of the 14 measured variables highlighted in bold. Song spectrograms of male and female Rufous-capped Warbler songs of the B. Female songs and syllables are shorter, have higher maximum and peak frequency, and larger bandwidth than male songs. Based on data collected from live birds, museum specimens, and archived sound recordings sampled across the range of Rufous-capped Warblers, we found considerable differences between the delattrii and rufifrons groups of subspecies in morphology, plumage pattern, plumage color, and song. Our analyses also show that B. This suggests that Rufous-capped Warblers comprise 2 distinct groups: delattrii and rufifrons - salvini. Our results align with historical taxonomic groupings based upon morphology and plumage color Todd and recent evidence based on field observations Howell and Webb rather than the current classification as a single species Monroe Additionally, the vocal divergence between the delattrii and rufifrons - salvini groups, described for the first time in our study, provides further evidence of distinctiveness between the 2 groups. Overall, our morphological analyses suggest that the delattrii group is distinct from the rufifrons group and B. Interestingly, the groups also differ in body shape as well as size. Our wing-tail difference measurements corroborate the analyses of Todd , who also noted that all rufifrons group subspecies as well as B. Furthermore, our discriminant analysis results suggest that B. The discriminant analysis of all 8 subspecies further supports the separation of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, as most of the incorrect assignments for a given subspecies were to another subspecies within the same group. Our morphological analyses did reveal some overlap between plumage groups, since the only diagnosable trait was the difference in wing length between the delattrii group and B. The overlap between groups may be attributable to the similar overall size of all Basileuterus warblers Curson Although not explicitly tested in our study, particular subspecies or populations may also be locally adapted to specific diets, which could explain why traits related to foraging e. Another possibility is that morphological divergence is an adaptation to variation in temperature or other climatic variables. Indeed, a separate study testing ecogeographic rules using the same museum dataset found that Rufous-capped Warblers living in regions with lower average annual temperatures had longer wings and tails than those living in warmer regions Bastien Further studies should assess these relationships within each subspecies, and, in particular, investigate whether the unique morphological features of B. We found that plumage color varies more than morphology among Rufous-capped Warblers, and that the differences between plumage groups vary depending on the plumage patch examined. According to our most conservative analysis, which assessed perceptual distinctiveness between plumage groups, the belly was the only distinct patch between all 3 groups. For the crown, nape, and rump, the delattrii and rufifrons groups were both distinct from one another, whereas B. For the breast and mantle, the delattrii group and B. Unlike the morphological comparisons, no plumage patches were perceptually similar between the rufifrons group and B. Our use of spectral measurements to analyze plumage color revealed that UV reflectance differed among plumage groups, with the delattrii group having higher overall UV reflectance i. Previous Rufous-capped Warbler taxonomic comparisons qualitatively described plumage colors and classified each subspecies based on their geographical ranges and subtle color variation relative to the reference subspecies B. Our analyses used quantitative spectrometry and avian visual models to confirm the overall differences and similarities in plumage characteristics described by earlier researchers, while also providing new insights into color variation which is invisible to human eyes e. The large variation in plumage coloration among subspecies and plumage groups could result from ecological selection, wherein plumage color evolves to maximize either conspicuousness or crypsis relative to the environment Endler and Théry , Doucet et al. All 3 plumage groups have particular habitat preferences; the rufifrons group prefers dry, open habitats, the delattrii group prefers dry to semi-humid, forested sites, and B. In the forested habitat of the delattrii group, olive-green upperparts would be more cryptic, whereas a deep red crown and yellow breast, which are potentially sexually selected signals, would be more conspicuous e. Furthermore, female mating preferences could result in plumage features such as a yellow B. A similar scenario occurred when yellow collar color introgressed into white-collared populations across a hybrid zone between Golden-collared Manakins Manacus vitellinus and White-collared Manakins M. However, since no confirmed hybrids exist between B. An intriguing finding of our plumage analysis was that although Rufous-capped Warblers appear sexually monochromatic to humans, several plumage patches are in fact sexually dichromatic. We found that females of the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. The presence of sexual dichromatism suggests that the crown may be a signal used in mate choice or sex recognition. Mate choice experiments using visual models of warblers with varying crown colors Baldassarre and Webster may be useful to further explore the role of these plumage patches as mating signals. Other sex-specific differences were found only in the delattrii group, providing further evidence that the delattrii group is distinct from the rufifrons group and B. Further research on little-studied monochromatic tropical species, particularly bright monochromatic species like the Rufous-capped Warbler, will likely reveal other cases of cryptic sexual dichromatism e. Male Rufous-capped Warbler songs separated distinctly into 2 groups: delattrii and rufifrons - salvini. These vocal differences further suggest that B. Male song is used to attract mates and defend territories Catchpole and Slater , and may therefore act as a strong isolating barrier even between closely related taxa without large morphological or plumage variation Toews and Irwin , Dingle et al. Indeed, a playback study in southern Mexico showed that both B. Observations in the sympatric zone also suggest that B. Further evidence for vocal divergence in sympatry is that among the subset of sympatric male songs measured in our study B. Future genetic analyses will assess the presence of gene flow between these 2 subspecies in sympatry. As with plumage divergence, the marked vocal divergence observed between the delattrii and rufifrons - salvini groups could result from ecological selection Wilkins et al. In Rufous-capped Warblers, the rufifrons group and B. Both types of songs would be expected to transmit well in their respective environments according to the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis Morton In Rufous-collared Sparrows Zonotrichia capensis , a similar pattern of vocal variation occurs wherein songs from open-habitat populations are lower frequency, narrower bandwidth, and contain longer, faster trills than songs from forest-dwelling populations Handford and Lougheed However, the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis is not universally supported across all Rufous-collared Sparrow populations Kopuchian et al. In Rufous-capped Warblers, it is also likely that ecological selection is not the sole explanation for population-level vocal differences since many song features, such as frequency, are inconsistent with the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis Morton A small study comparing habitat features of B. Since songs are similar within Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies in both sympatric and allopatric areas, further work should measure whether site-specific factors e. Additionally, our sample of songs was concentrated in southern Mexico and Costa Rica, so further recordings from sites throughout the Rufous-capped Warbler range, coupled with vegetation sampling, sound transmission experiments, and ambient noise measurements at the same sites, could clarify the role of ecological selection in shaping song structure in this species. Vocal divergence between Rufous-capped Warbler plumage groups was also apparent in female songs of both the delattrii and rufifrons groups, which differed from one another while being structurally similar to their male counterparts. Female delattrii songs are shorter, with fewer syllables and syllable types and higher maximum frequency than male songs Demko and Mennill These songs appear to serve a territory defense function in intense interactions such as playback-simulated conspecific territorial intrusions by pairs Demko and Mennill , yet are rarely used spontaneously Demko and Mennill Female rufifrons group songs were also shorter, with fewer syllables and higher maximum frequency, than male songs. The syllables themselves were also shorter, and of higher maximum frequency and larger bandwidth. Interestingly, female singing behavior of the 2 subspecies may also differ: B. Demko personal observation and sang more frequently in response to playback during an experimental study than did B. Given that female song is common yet poorly studied in tropical songbird species Stutchbury and Morton , Odom and Benedict , and that the delattrii and rufifrons groups appear to be vocally distinct based on our analyses, further investigations of female song in both groups would be informative to explore vocal evolution in the family Parulidae. Our research revealed that the rufifrons group and B. The low responses to other-subspecies song and apparent lack of inter-subspecies territoriality and hybridization in a sympatric zone between B. Our results therefore suggest the presence of 2 distinct groups within this species complex: the Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons , comprised of the 5 northern subspecies B. Ongoing genomic analyses of samples from the B. We thank A. Demarse, R. López Antonio, M. Morneau, and V. Vargas Herrera for field assistance in Costa Rica and Mexico. We thank G. Bastien for assistance in plumage measurements. We thank L. Szucki for creating warbler illustrations for Figure 1. For permission to access study areas, we thank local authorities, landowners, and park staff in the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Veracruz, Mexico. We thank R. We thank J. Author contributions: All authors formulated the research ideas; A. We also thank 2 anonymous reviewers for feedback, which improved the final manuscript. Data depository: Analyses reported in this article can be reproduced using the data provided by Demko et al. Aleixandre , P. Speciation on oceanic islands: Rapid adaptive divergence vs. Plos One 8 : e Google Scholar. Baldassarre , D. Webster Experimental evidence that extra-pair mating drives asymmetrical introgression of a sexual trait. Biological Sciences : Bastien , G. Ecogeographical and climatic predictors of geographical variation in plumage and morphology in Rufous-capped Warblers, Basileuterus rufifrons. Honours thesis, University of Windsor , Ontario, Canada. Google Preview. Benites , P. Campagna , and P. Tubaro Song-based species discrimination in a rapid Neotropical radiation of grassland seedeaters. Journal of Avian Biology 46 : 55 — Benjamini , Y. Hochberg Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Benkman , C. Divergent selection drives the adaptive radiation of crossbills. Evolution 57 : — Burns , K. Shultz Widespread cryptic dichromatism and ultraviolet reflectance in the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds: Implications of accounting for avian vision in the study of plumage evolution. The Auk : — Cadena , C. Habían obtenido la segunda tras acreditar su origen judeoespañol, en virtud de una ley de que permite a los descendientes de los judíos sefardíes reclamarla. Entre las fallecidas, había hijas de otros hombres de negocios y diseñadoras como Liana Hananel, dueña de la línea de ropa de baño Lily and Rose. Nombró a la doctora Rachel Cole, primera mujer afroamericana que se graduó de medicina en Estados Unidos, como su compañera en la dirección del establecimiento. Sus logros se difundieron a todas partes del mundo: mujeres de Rusia pedían ser admitidas en las escuelas de medicina de San Petersburgo; una joven había empezado a estudiar medicina en una escuela de Argel; el gobierno sueco solicitaba información porque en Estocolmo había 15 mujeres interesadas en estudiar medicina. En Inglaterra, las mujeres que deseaban estudiar medicina sufrían vejaciones, la prensa las llamaba "las siete sinvergüenzas", los estudiantes las atacaban y fueron expulsadas. Tras legar conceptos vanguardistas como el seguro contra la enfermedad y la vejez, el mejoramiento de las viviendas de los pobres y las cooperativas para disminuir el precio de los víveres, Blackwell falleció en , a los 89 años de edad. Matilde Petra Montoya Lafragua En nuestro país una mujer también tuvo un difícil camino por la medicina. Fue Matilde Montoya, reconocida como la primera mexicana graduada de la Escuela de Medicina de México. Matilde nació en la ciudad de México el 14 de mayo de Primero se inscribió en la carrera de Obstetricia y Partera, de la Escuela Nacional de Medicina, pero por problemas económicos tuvo que dejarla y en siguió en la Escuela de Parteras y Obstetras de la Casa de Maternidad, que atendía a las madres solteras. Viajó de nuevo a México y fue aceptada en la Escuela Nacional de Medicina a los 23 años, en Figura 3. Matilde Montoya acompañada por sus compañeros apodados Los Montoyos. Lograron expulsarla bajo el argumento de que no había acreditado algunas materias de bachillerato. De nuevo recurrió al presidente Díaz, quien emitió un decreto el 24 de agosto de por el que modificó el estatuto de la Escuela Nacional de Medicina para que pudieran graduarse mujeres médicas. Sus detractores señalaron que Montoya se había titulado por "decreto presidencial". Figura 4. Solicitud hecha por Elena Knapp al H. Consejo Superior de Salubridad de Nuevo León en para presentar su examen como partera a título de suficiencia. En su época, Matilde Montoya dividió a la opinión mexicana en montoyistas y antimontoyistas quienes afirmaban que la mujer debe concretarse a realizar las labores del hogar, y quienes opinaban lo contrario. Sus enemigos la calificaban de inmoral y sus partidarios de heroína. Matilde Montoya trabajó en su consulta particular hasta una edad avanzada. Siempre tuvo dos consultorios. A los 50 años de haberse graduado, en agosto de , tres asociaciones de médicas mexicanas le ofrecieron un homenaje en el Palacio de Bellas Artes. Murió cinco meses después, el 26 de enero de , a los 79 años. La mujer y la medicina en Nuevo León. Esto no desanimó a Gonzalitos. Moisés L. Se aceptó su solicitud y se le aplicó el examen a título de suficiencia. El jurado se integró con los doctores Antonio Lafon, José Ygnacio de la Garza García y Juan de Dios Treviño, quienes la aprobaron al día siguiente, 3 de julio de , por unanimidad Figura 4. Aunque el Informe menciona que su fecha de titulación es el 27 de septiembre de , no se localizó documentación respecto al tipo de examen que presentó..

La doctora Catalina Olivo Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord como vivió siempre, de manera modesta, austera y discreta, el 10 de abril dea los 73 años de edad. Puede destacarse que el servicio social ha sido parte de las actividades de los egresados en la carrera article source medicina desde Figura 7.

Nuestra Facultad emuló el proyecto realizado en por la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, dirigida por el doctor Gustavo Baz Prada, en la que se formó la primera brigada asistencial con jóvenes pasantes de medicina, a quienes se les Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord una comunidad rural para ejercer por un periodo de seis meses.

Debían no sólo atender enfermedades, sino instruir respecto a higiene. En Nuevo León, la autoridad estatal encabezada entonces por el general Anacleto Guerrero determinó el establecimiento del servicio médico social rural, compuesto por pasantes de nuestra Facultad de Medicina.

Buscando una chica traviesa en Karokh

Este servicio tenía como objetivo la higienización de los medios de vida y la atención de los padecimientos infecto-contagiosos y epidemias de los campesinos, para quienes, por falta de atención médica, las enfermedades comunes y sencillas se complicaban hasta incluso provocar la muerte.

Me presenté con las autoridades del municipio, 'así que usted es la doctora', me decían y me veían con cierta duda.

Para mí fue especialmente importante haberme ganado la confianza del pueblo, que se les haya olvidado que era mujer joven, y hayan acudido a mí. Después de una experiencia como ésta, https://pub-5.pronto.website/topic-2020-08-14.php de sus compañeros brigadistas se quedaron a vivir en los pueblos a los que habían sido asignados. Hasta el servicio social lo realizaban sólo pasantes de medicina y luego se Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord a los Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord enfermería.

Chubby shota Watch SEX Movies Pussyman Femdom. Miércoles 29 de Julio de Compartir en Facebook Compartir. Compartir en Twitter Tweet. Compartir en WhatsApp Compartir. Fernando Duclos. Ruta de la Seda. Así es la nueva moneda de 20 pesos: un tributo al puerto de Veracruz. Algunos sitios web de noticias también fueron bloqueados por las autoridades iraníes. Los servicios de telefonía móvil, incluidos los mensajes de texto, también se habían detenido o se habían vuelto muy difíciles de usar desde el día anterior a las elecciones. Específicamente, todos los sitios web afiliados a la BBC fueron bloqueados, así como aquellos afiliados a The Guardian. Associated Press calificó las acciones como "medidas ominosas que aparentemente buscan socavar las voces liberales". Un software anti-censura, Freegate , desarrollado por Global Internet Freedom Consortium , fue ampliamente utilizado y demostró ser efectivo. Sin embargo, los activistas en línea del Movimiento Verde iraní continuaron su activismo político y resistieron la represión en línea mediante la adopción de diferentes estrategias como: " 1 desidentificación, 2 reforma de la red, 3 elusión, 4 autocensura y 5 ser discretamente activo ". Dijo que aunque no creía que los líderes de la oposición estuvieran trabajando como agentes de gobiernos extranjeros, sí creía que las protestas estaban organizadas y planificadas, posiblemente sin el conocimiento de la oposición política iraní. El 16 de junio, Der Spiegel citó a Voice of America informando que el gobierno iraní había reclutado hasta 5, combatientes libaneses de Hezbollah para enfrentarse con los manifestantes. Varios intelectuales iraníes organizaron una huelga de hambre de tres días frente a las Naciones Unidas. La invitación fue firmada por 42 estudiosos. El evento estaba programado para el 22 y 24 de julio de El ciudadano estadounidense Noam Chomsky estuvo presente en la huelga de hambre. Varios iraníes organizaron una huelga de dos días en Brandenburger Tor en Berlín, Alemania. El evento estaba programado para el 24 y 25 de julio de Entre los huelguistas estaba Daryush Shokof. Las huelgas de hambre son por la libertad de todos los presos políticos iraníes y por "no" reconocer las elecciones presidenciales y su presidente Mahmoud Ahmadinejad en Robert Redford se unió y apoyó la huelga de hambre en Washington el 20 de julio. BBC News describió la reacción general de la comunidad internacional a las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de como "silenciada". Su portavoz, Mohsen Makhmalbaf , criticó al presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, por mantener que la diferencia entre Ahmadinejad y Mousavi "puede no ser tan grande como se ha anunciado". Los manifestantes se han reunido en ciudades de todo el mundo para protestar. La violencia y los resultados electorales. Aunque las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de fueron ampliamente disputadas, el secretario general de la ONU, Ban Ki-moon, envió un mensaje de felicitación tradicional a Ahmadinejad tras su toma de posesión. En otro incidente, la activista prominente Akbar Ganji inició una huelga de hambre durante tres días frente a la ONU. Durante el descanso, se les ordenó retirarlos, siete de los ocho cumplieron. Posteriormente fueron suspendidos. Asimismo, el futbolista italiano Francesco Totti envió un mensaje de saludo a la juventud iraní durante las protestas. A los 50 años de haberse graduado, en agosto de , tres asociaciones de médicas mexicanas le ofrecieron un homenaje en el Palacio de Bellas Artes. Murió cinco meses después, el 26 de enero de , a los 79 años. La mujer y la medicina en Nuevo León. Esto no desanimó a Gonzalitos. Moisés L. Se aceptó su solicitud y se le aplicó el examen a título de suficiencia. El jurado se integró con los doctores Antonio Lafon, José Ygnacio de la Garza García y Juan de Dios Treviño, quienes la aprobaron al día siguiente, 3 de julio de , por unanimidad Figura 4. Aunque el Informe menciona que su fecha de titulación es el 27 de septiembre de , no se localizó documentación respecto al tipo de examen que presentó. Figura 5. Acta del examen presentado en por María Saldívar en la Escuela de Medicina de Nuevo León para obtener su título en obstetricia. María Saldívar, se dio principio al acto proponiéndole algunas cuestiones sobre las diversas asignaturas que prescribe el Reglamento, las que resolvió en el término de dos horas, con lo que se terminó dicho acto a las 5 de la tarde. Catalina Olivo Villarreal, primera médica del estado. Pionera en el camino que a lo largo de tan sólo 74 años han seguido miles de mujeres, Catalina Olivo Villarreal fue la primera en incursionar profesionalmente en la medicina en Nuevo León Figura 6. Figura 6. Quienes la conocieron aseguran que es difícil trazar su biografía detallada debido a que fue sumamente reservada. En una entrevista realizada el 14 de mayo de , la doctora María Elena Martínez Ortega, primera jefa de un servicio en el Hospital Universitario, la describe como sencilla, discreta y amable, casi misteriosa. Al concluir, pidió permiso especial al gobernador en turno para ingresar al Colegio Civil, lo que entonces estaba prohibido para las mujeres porque era militarizado. Para continuar sus estudios en la Escuela de Medicina volvió a solicitar la anuencia del Ejecutivo y cursó la carrera de a Su examen profesional se realizó los días 8 y 9 de marzo de Era entonces parte del ceremonial de tan importante evento, un impresionante repique de la campaña que estaba en el largo corredor del hospital. Doce campanadas anunciaban que había un nuevo médico. Tuvo su consultorio en la calle 15 de mayo casi esquina con Garibaldi y allí atendía a mujeres y niños; en el mismo domicilio vivía con una hermana que le ayudaba a recibir a los pacientes que llegaban a tocar la puerta, siempre cerrada. Miguel F. A pesar de que no solía asistir a eventos sociales, perteneció a sociedades médicas e incluso fue una de las fundadoras de la Asociación de Médicas de Nuevo León en Después de este homenaje se le detectó a Catalina Olivo una enfermedad que por desgracia resultó terminal. Me decía -No te vayas -apenas podía hablar-, no te vayas. Pero comprendí como a las ocho de la noche que ya era imprudente estar ahí y me retiré; creo que dos horas después murió. La doctora Catalina Olivo murió como vivió siempre, de manera modesta, austera y discreta, el 10 de abril de , a los 73 años de edad. Puede destacarse que el servicio social ha sido parte de las actividades de los egresados en la carrera de medicina desde Figura 7. To assess whether individual songs could be accurately classified to our predefined plumage groups, we used DFA with leave-one-out cross-validation Cadena and Cuervo , Halley et al. We ran DFA using a subset of 8 non-collinear variables song duration, song minimum frequency, song maximum frequency, peak frequency, number of syllables, number of syllable types, syllable production rate, and syllable versatility. We excluded females from these analyses owing to small sample sizes of female songs; females sing far less often than males in this species Demko and Mennill To assess sex-specific differences in the rufifrons group and B. Rufous-capped Warblers showed range-wide variation in morphology between the delattrii and rufifrons groups for several characters. Overall, B. For males, the most diagnostic traits in the discriminant analysis were wing and tail length, which together classified Classification accuracy was high for both the delattrii of correct, or For B. Rufous-capped Warblers show morphological differences between the delattrii group yellow , rufifrons group gray , and B. Wing length A , B differed significantly, with the delattrii group having the longest wings and B. Tail length C , D was longer for the rufifrons group than the other 2 groups. In both males E and females F , the delattrii group had a positive wing-tail difference wing longer than tail and both the rufifrons group and B. For females, the most diagnostic trait based on discriminant analysis was wing length, which classified As with males, classification accuracy was high for both the delattrii 62 of 75 correct, or For both sexes, the only diagnosable trait was wing length between the delattrii group and B. Morphological measurements of male and female Rufous-capped Warblers according to plumage group yellow-bellied delattrii group, white-bellied rufifrons group, and B. The mean value was negative for both the rufifrons group and B. Results of the 3-subspecies and 8-subspecies morphological analyses showed similar patterns and are presented in Supplementary Material Appendices B and C. Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies in the same plumage group shared similar facial and underpart color patterns, corroborating previous descriptions Ridgway , Todd All birds in the rufifrons group and B. Some individuals of 2 rufifrons group subspecies By contrast, all birds in the delattrii group had all-yellow breasts and bellies. Rufous-capped Warblers differed in coloration between plumage groups in all 10 spectrally measured plumage patches Supplementary Material Table S4. The crowns of the rufifrons group and B. Using values collected with reflectance spectrometry, the crowns of the delattrii group had significantly more red-shifted color i. The rufifrons group had more saturated crowns i. Overall crown color, as measured by Euclidean distances units in JNDs between patches, differed between both sexes of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, and between males of the delattrii group and B. Plumage color descriptions by body region in B. Euclidean distances in just noticeable differences JNDs between plumage groups for male and female Rufous-capped Warblers. The throats and upper breasts of the rufifrons group and B. By contrast, the delattrii group had golden yellow throats, breasts, and bellies Table 2. For the belly, all 3 groups differed significantly in hue theta, hue phi, and r achieved, with the delattrii group having the highest values i. Overall belly color was perceptually different between both sexes of all 3 groups Table 3. For the breast, the delattrii group and B. UV reflectance hue phi differed significantly across all 3 groups, with the delattrii group having the highest values and the rufifrons group having the lowest values. Finally, the delattrii group had significantly higher luminance values than both the rufifrons group and B. The rufifrons group differed perceptually in overall breast color from both the delattrii group and B. For the throat, there were no significant differences in hue theta or luminance, although r achieved differed significantly across all 3 groups, with B. Overall throat color differed perceptually between both sexes of the delattrii group and B. Rufous-capped Warblers show plumage color differences between the delattrii group yellow , rufifrons group gray , and B. Four color features are shown for both males and females: hue theta A , hue phi B , r achieved C , and luminance D , between the bellies of Rufous-capped Warblers of the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. Remaining plumage patches are shown in the Supplementary Material. The mantle color varied from olive in the delattrii group to olive-gray in the rufifrons group, whereas B. The delattrii group had significantly more saturated, less bright mantles i. Hue theta and hue phi differed significantly between all 3 groups, with the highest values, or most green-shifted color, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or most yellow-shifted color, for the rufifrons group Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figure S4. Overall mantle color differed perceptually between the rufifrons group and both the delattrii group and B. The napes of the rufifrons group and B. All 3 groups differed significantly in hue theta and hue phi, with the highest values, or green-shifted color with higher UV reflectance, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or yellow-shifted color with lower UV reflectance, for the rufifrons group. Luminance was higher for both the rufifrons group and B. Overall nape color differed perceptually between the delattrii and rufifrons groups, whereas B. The rumps and shoulders of the delattrii group and B. For both patches, all 3 groups differed in hue theta and hue phi, with the highest values, or green-shifted color with higher UV reflectance, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or yellow-shifted color with lower UV reflectance, for the rufifrons group. For the rump, the delattrii group had more saturated color higher r achieved than the rufifrons group and B. The groups did not differ in luminance for either rump or shoulder, or in r achieved for shoulder Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figures S6, S7. All 3 groups were perceptually different in overall rump color except for males of the delattrii group and B. Overall shoulder color differed perceptually between both sexes of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, and between females of the rufifrons group and B. The tail and wing patches were dusky gray in all individuals, with yellow-green feather borders in the rufifrons group and B. For the tail, the delattrii group had higher UV reflectance hue phi and lower r achieved than both the rufifrons group and B. The luminance was higher for B. However, overall tail color was perceptually similar between all 3 groups based on Euclidean distances in JNDs Table 3. For the wing, all 3 groups differed in UV reflectance hue phi , with the delattrii group having the highest and the rufifrons group having the lowest values, and for r achieved and luminance, with B. The delattrii group had higher hue theta values, or more green-shifted color, than the rufifrons group Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figure S9. Overall wing color was perceptually different between the delattrii group and B. Using the bootstrap resampling analysis to further test whether plumage patches were perceptually distinct to the warblers in addition to our Euclidean distance analyses above , the belly color was perceptually distinct between all 3 groups. For the breast and mantle, the rufifrons group was perceptually distinct from both the delattrii group and B. For the crown, nape, and rump, only the delattrii and rufifrons groups were perceptually distinct. For the wing, only the delattrii group and B. For the shoulder, tail, and throat, none of the groups were perceptually distinct from one another. Rufous-capped Warbler plumage color differed significantly between the sexes for the crown, mantle, nape, tail, and wing Supplementary Material Table S4. Males of all 3 groups had greater UV reflectance in the crown and tail i. There were significant collection year effects for all plumage patches, indicating an influence of specimen age on reflectance. Hue theta values decreased significantly towards zero with age for all plumage patches except for the crown and tail; in other words, hue became more yellow-shifted with increased specimen age. The amount of UV reflectance hue phi decreased significantly with increased age for all plumage patches. The saturation r achieved increased significantly with age for the belly, breast, crown, nape, rump, shoulder, and tail, whereas it decreased significantly for the throat and was similar across ages for the mantle and wing. Brightness luminance decreased significantly with age for the belly, breast, and throat; increased with age for the crown, tail, and wing; and was similar across ages for the mantle, nape, rump, and shoulder Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5. Results of the 3-subspecies plumage analyses showed similar patterns and are presented in Supplementary Material Appendix D. Rufous-capped Warbler songs differed significantly in both acoustic structure and organization among plumage groups Table 4 , with the delattrii group being well-differentiated from the rufifrons group and B. For 13 of the 14 measured variables, the delattrii group differed significantly from the rufifrons group and B. Positive loadings corresponded to song duration, number of syllables, and syllable production rate, whereas negative loadings corresponded to all other variables Supplementary Material Table S2. Therefore, songs with positive PC1 scores rufifrons group and B. Songs with negative PC1 scores delattrii group; Figure 5B , D , F were shorter and slower paced, had fewer syllables but more variety of syllable types, were higher in frequency at both the song and syllable level, and had longer, wider bandwidth syllables. Vocal measurements of male Rufous-capped Warbler songs by plumage group delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. All variables were significantly different between the delattrii group and both the rufifrons group and B. Song spectrograms of Rufous-capped Warbler male songs: allopatric B. Songs of rufifrons group A , E and B. Songs from sympatric B. Male songs of Rufous-capped Warblers in the delattrii group were distinct from those of the rufifrons group and B. Individuals of both sympatric B. Discriminant analysis results also showed that delattrii group songs differed from rufifrons group and B. The most diagnostic trait according to discriminant analysis was the syllable versatility index the ratio of the number of different syllable types to the total number of syllables , which correctly classified Most delattrii group songs All rufifrons group 75 of 75 and B. Although female song output is lower than male song output in Rufous-capped Warblers Demko and Mennill , we detected female songs in all 3 groups. Male and female rufifrons group and B. In comparison with male songs, female songs were shorter with higher maximum frequency and bandwidth. Syllables of female songs were also shorter, with higher maximum frequency, peak frequency, and bandwidth, than male syllables. Although female songs had fewer syllables than male songs, they had a greater variety of syllable types i. Male and female songs shared similar song and syllable minimum frequency, song peak frequency, number of syllable types, and syllable production rate Figure 7. In contrast to female delattrii group songs, which have similar syllable types as male songs Demko and Mennill , female rufifrons group songs are structurally distinct from those of males Figure 7. Vocal measurements of male and female rufifrons group and B. Male and female songs differed significantly in 9 of the 14 measured variables highlighted in bold. Song spectrograms of male and female Rufous-capped Warbler songs of the B. Female songs and syllables are shorter, have higher maximum and peak frequency, and larger bandwidth than male songs. Based on data collected from live birds, museum specimens, and archived sound recordings sampled across the range of Rufous-capped Warblers, we found considerable differences between the delattrii and rufifrons groups of subspecies in morphology, plumage pattern, plumage color, and song. Our analyses also show that B. This suggests that Rufous-capped Warblers comprise 2 distinct groups: delattrii and rufifrons - salvini. Our results align with historical taxonomic groupings based upon morphology and plumage color Todd and recent evidence based on field observations Howell and Webb rather than the current classification as a single species Monroe Additionally, the vocal divergence between the delattrii and rufifrons - salvini groups, described for the first time in our study, provides further evidence of distinctiveness between the 2 groups. Overall, our morphological analyses suggest that the delattrii group is distinct from the rufifrons group and B. Interestingly, the groups also differ in body shape as well as size. Our wing-tail difference measurements corroborate the analyses of Todd , who also noted that all rufifrons group subspecies as well as B. Furthermore, our discriminant analysis results suggest that B. The discriminant analysis of all 8 subspecies further supports the separation of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, as most of the incorrect assignments for a given subspecies were to another subspecies within the same group. Our morphological analyses did reveal some overlap between plumage groups, since the only diagnosable trait was the difference in wing length between the delattrii group and B. The overlap between groups may be attributable to the similar overall size of all Basileuterus warblers Curson Although not explicitly tested in our study, particular subspecies or populations may also be locally adapted to specific diets, which could explain why traits related to foraging e. Another possibility is that morphological divergence is an adaptation to variation in temperature or other climatic variables. Indeed, a separate study testing ecogeographic rules using the same museum dataset found that Rufous-capped Warblers living in regions with lower average annual temperatures had longer wings and tails than those living in warmer regions Bastien Further studies should assess these relationships within each subspecies, and, in particular, investigate whether the unique morphological features of B. El avión, un Bombardier CL propiedad del mismo holding Basaran, con activos en turismo, energía y construcción, despegó de Sharjah, rumbo a Estambul, el domingo a primera hora de la tarde. De acuerdo con el Hürriyet, la piloto de la nave, Melike Kuvvet - primera piloto que tuvo la Fuerza Aérea Turca - solicitó a torres de control iraníes un aterrizaje de emergencia por "problemas técnicos"..

En el Instituto Politécnico Nacional instituyó el servicio social para la atención de las zonas indígenas y rurales. Desafiando la costumbre, tomó un rumbo diferente y optó por una especialidad, la otorrinolaringología; después sería la primera jefa de un servicio en el Hospital Universitario Figura 8. Figura 8. Nació en la Ciudad de Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord, Tamaulipas, el 4 de junio de Sus padres fueron Ricardo Martínez y María Guadalupe Ortega, una de las primeras parteras universitarias.

Llegó a Monterrey a la edad de siete años.

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Reconoce que, en su niñez, la imagen de Catalina Olivo influyó en su decisión de estudiar medicina. En el Hospital conocí a una señorita que estaba estudiando medicina, se me pusieron los ojos del tamaño de un plato.

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En ingresó al Colegio Civil. Nos consideraban locas". Aunque sus padres la apoyaron para que estudiara medicina a su hermana menor se le permitió estudiar Leyesnunca faltaron comentarios despectivos y críticas de una parte de la sociedad.

Pero nosotras dimos a entender que no hubo cosas así vergonzosas acerca de las mujeres de mis tiempos, después no sé y ni quiero saber, pero éramos mujeres muy damas, en ese sentido sin nada de colorcitos distintos ni actitudes distintas. Yo gocé el privilegio de tener el respeto y el apoyo de mis compañeros de generación.

Realizó su servicio social en Higueras y su examen profesional se efectuó los días 21 y 22 de marzo de El vicegobernador de la provincia de Chaharmahal y Bajtiarí, Yafar Mardani, ha confirmado more info la agencia oficial IRNA que los servicios de rescate han recuperado la caja negra y los cuerpos de diez de las once tripulantes - tres de ellos personal de cabina - de la nave privada siniestrada.

Regresaban de la despedida de soltera de Mina Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord, hija de un famoso empresario turco. Sus discursos ganaron la infamia internacional, que generalmente pedía la destrucción de Israel y afirmaba que el Holocausto fue fabricado. Como resultado, las Naciones Unidas han impuesto sanciones al gobierno iraní, que ha tenido un fuerte impacto en la economía, reduciendo el valor del rial de un mínimo de 8, por dólar en a 10, por dólar en Ahmadinejad comenzó una campaña de privatización de empresas estatales, pero la mayoría de las empresas terminaron en manos de funcionarios y fundaciones bonyads conectados por el gobierno.

El Ministerio de Petróleo otorgó a IRGC miles de millones de dólares en contratos, así como en importantes proyectos de infraestructura. Las numerosas encuestas iraníes muestran una amplia gama de resultados diferentes.

Una opinión en el New York Times afirma que esto se debe a la alta fluctuación entre los votantes durante la temporada de campaña. La elección Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord la presidencia tuvo lugar el 12 de junio de A diferencia de la elección dela elección de contó con una alta participación. Los resultados de las elecciones se anunciaron solo 2 horas después del final de las votaciones, lo que puede parecer imposible.

Los resultados oficiales fueron rechazados por los tres candidatos de la oposición, quienes afirmaron que los votos fueron manipulados y que las elecciones fueron manipuladas. Los candidatos Mohsen Rezaee Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord Mousavi han presentado quejas oficiales. Mebane Jr. El grupo de expertos con sede en el Reino Unido, Chatham House, también sospechó fraude en el proceso de votación por varias razones:.

Emerjac Sex Watch SEX Movies Ladies nude. Entre los huelguistas estaba Daryush Shokof. Las huelgas de hambre son por la libertad de todos los presos políticos iraníes y por "no" reconocer las elecciones presidenciales y su presidente Mahmoud Ahmadinejad en Robert Redford se unió y apoyó la huelga de hambre en Washington el 20 de julio. BBC News describió la reacción general de la comunidad internacional a las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de como "silenciada". Su portavoz, Mohsen Makhmalbaf , criticó al presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, por mantener que la diferencia entre Ahmadinejad y Mousavi "puede no ser tan grande como se ha anunciado". Los manifestantes se han reunido en ciudades de todo el mundo para protestar. La violencia y los resultados electorales. Aunque las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de fueron ampliamente disputadas, el secretario general de la ONU, Ban Ki-moon, envió un mensaje de felicitación tradicional a Ahmadinejad tras su toma de posesión. En otro incidente, la activista prominente Akbar Ganji inició una huelga de hambre durante tres días frente a la ONU. Durante el descanso, se les ordenó retirarlos, siete de los ocho cumplieron. Posteriormente fueron suspendidos. Asimismo, el futbolista italiano Francesco Totti envió un mensaje de saludo a la juventud iraní durante las protestas. Un grupo de "artistas y escritores iraníes en el exilio" iraníes publicó una carta abierta en apoyo de las protestas. Se han llevado a cabo importantes protestas en las principales ciudades de todo el mundo. The Economist informó que los partidarios de Mousavi han alistado el simbolismo religioso de su lado. Esto apela directamente a la noción de injusticia y redención en el corazón del Islam chiíta. Otros, sin embargo, fueron irreligiosos en sus protestas. Las instituciones religiosas se usaban para comunicarse de un grupo revolucionario a otro. Estas instituciones consisten en "mezquitas, centros rituales e incluso fondos de caridad, y estos lugares permitieron que las personas se reunieran justo debajo de las narices del gobierno para organizarse. Los manifestantes se han vestido modestamente deliberadamente. The Time informó que algunos manifestantes creían que tenían el deber religioso de protestar. Al llorar la muerte de los manifestantes asesinados, los manifestantes corearon "La paz sea con el profeta Mahoma y su familia ". La fe chiita se fundó en la idea del sacrificio propio en la causa de la justicia. En un video filtrado de una reunión de los líderes de la Guardia Revolucionaria, declaró: "Fue un golpe que debilitó los pilares fundamentales del régimen Source Authors Original. Previous article Next article. Sosa-López , and D. Subspecies discrimination on the basis of acoustic signals: A playback experiment in a Neotropical songbird. Animal Behaviour : 77 — Sosa-López , R. Simpson , S. Doucet , and D. Data from: Divergence in plumage, voice, and morphology indicates speciation in Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons. The Auk: Ornithological Advances : 1 — Dingle , C. Poelstra , W. Halfwerk , D. Brinkhuizen , and H. Slabbekoorn Asymmetric response patterns to subspecies-specific song differences in allopatry and parapatry in the gray-breasted wood-wren. Evolution 64 : — Doucet , S. Hill Do museum specimens accurately represent wild birds? A case study of carotenoid, melanin, and structural colours in long-tailed manakins Chiroxiphia linearis. Journal of Avian Biology 40 : — Mennill , and G. The evolution of signal design in Manakin plumage ornaments. The American Naturalist : S62 — S Eaton , M. Avian visual perspective on plumage coloration confirms rarity of sexually monochromatic North American passerines. Endler , J. Mielke Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 86 : — Théry Interacting effects of lek placement, display behavior, ambient light, and color patterns in three Neotropical forest-dwelling birds. The American Naturalist : — Francis , C. Guralnick Fitting the bill: Do different winter food resources influence juniper titmouse Baeolophus ridgwayi bill morphology? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society : — Freile , J. Greeney , and E. Bonaccorso Current Neotropical ornithology: Research progress — The Condor: Ornithological Applications : 84 — Friedmann , H. Griscom , R. Moore , and A. Miller Distributional check-list of the birds of Mexico, Part II. Pacific Coast Avifauna 33 : Gil , D. Song organisation and singing patterns of the Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus. Behaviour : — Goldsmith , T. Optimization, constraint, and history in the evolution of eyes. The Quarterly Review of Biology 65 : — Ornelas , and C. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: Genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the Wedge-tailed Sabrewing Campylopterus curvipennis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11 : Graham , B. Sandoval , T. Dabelsteen , and D. A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis in three types of tropical forest: Degradation of male and female Rufous-and-white Wren songs. Bioacoustics 26 : 37 — Haig , S. Avian subspecies and the U. S Endangered Species Act. In Avian Subspecies F. James, Editor. Ornithological Monographs 67 : 24 — Halley , M. Klicka , P. Clee , and J. Weckstein Restoring the species status of Catharus maculatus Aves: Turdidae , a secretive Andean thrush, with a critique of the yardstick approach to species delimitation. Zootaxa : — Handford , P. Lougheed Variation in duration and frequency characters in the song of the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis , with respect to habitat, trill dialects and body size. The Condor 93 : — Hosner , P. Robbins , T. Valqui , and A. Peterson The Wilson Journal of Ornithology : — Howell , S. Webb Irwin , D. Bensch , and T. Price Speciation in a ring. Nature : — Kenyon , H. Alcaide , D. Toews , and D. Irwin Cultural isolation is greater than genetic isolation across an avian hybrid zone. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30 : 81 — Kopuchian , C. Lijtmaer , P. Tubaro , and P. Handford Temporal stability and change in a microgeographical pattern of song variation in the Rufous-collared Sparrow. Animal Behaviour 68 : — Lenth , R. Singmann , J. Love , P. Buerkner , and M. Herve R package version 1. Lijtmaer , D. A reversed pattern of association between song dialects and habitat in the Rufous-collared Sparrow. The Condor : — Maia , R. White Comparing colors using visual models. Behavioral Ecology 29 : — White , H. Gruson , J. Endler , C. Eliason , and P. Bitton En su época, Matilde Montoya dividió a la opinión mexicana en montoyistas y antimontoyistas quienes afirmaban que la mujer debe concretarse a realizar las labores del hogar, y quienes opinaban lo contrario. Sus enemigos la calificaban de inmoral y sus partidarios de heroína. Matilde Montoya trabajó en su consulta particular hasta una edad avanzada. Siempre tuvo dos consultorios. A los 50 años de haberse graduado, en agosto de , tres asociaciones de médicas mexicanas le ofrecieron un homenaje en el Palacio de Bellas Artes. Murió cinco meses después, el 26 de enero de , a los 79 años. La mujer y la medicina en Nuevo León. Esto no desanimó a Gonzalitos. Moisés L. Se aceptó su solicitud y se le aplicó el examen a título de suficiencia. El jurado se integró con los doctores Antonio Lafon, José Ygnacio de la Garza García y Juan de Dios Treviño, quienes la aprobaron al día siguiente, 3 de julio de , por unanimidad Figura 4. Aunque el Informe menciona que su fecha de titulación es el 27 de septiembre de , no se localizó documentación respecto al tipo de examen que presentó. Figura 5. Acta del examen presentado en por María Saldívar en la Escuela de Medicina de Nuevo León para obtener su título en obstetricia. María Saldívar, se dio principio al acto proponiéndole algunas cuestiones sobre las diversas asignaturas que prescribe el Reglamento, las que resolvió en el término de dos horas, con lo que se terminó dicho acto a las 5 de la tarde. Catalina Olivo Villarreal, primera médica del estado. Pionera en el camino que a lo largo de tan sólo 74 años han seguido miles de mujeres, Catalina Olivo Villarreal fue la primera en incursionar profesionalmente en la medicina en Nuevo León Figura 6. Figura 6. Quienes la conocieron aseguran que es difícil trazar su biografía detallada debido a que fue sumamente reservada. En una entrevista realizada el 14 de mayo de , la doctora María Elena Martínez Ortega, primera jefa de un servicio en el Hospital Universitario, la describe como sencilla, discreta y amable, casi misteriosa. Al concluir, pidió permiso especial al gobernador en turno para ingresar al Colegio Civil, lo que entonces estaba prohibido para las mujeres porque era militarizado. Para continuar sus estudios en la Escuela de Medicina volvió a solicitar la anuencia del Ejecutivo y cursó la carrera de a Su examen profesional se realizó los días 8 y 9 de marzo de Era entonces parte del ceremonial de tan importante evento, un impresionante repique de la campaña que estaba en el largo corredor del hospital. Doce campanadas anunciaban que había un nuevo médico. Tuvo su consultorio en la calle 15 de mayo casi esquina con Garibaldi y allí atendía a mujeres y niños; en el mismo domicilio vivía con una hermana que le ayudaba a recibir a los pacientes que llegaban a tocar la puerta, siempre cerrada. Miguel F. A pesar de que no solía asistir a eventos sociales, perteneció a sociedades médicas e incluso fue una de las fundadoras de la Asociación de Médicas de Nuevo León en Después de este homenaje se le detectó a Catalina Olivo una enfermedad que por desgracia resultó terminal. Me decía -No te vayas -apenas podía hablar-, no te vayas. Se han concluido 11 pozos, cinco terrestres, dos en aguas someras y cuatro en aguas profundas y ultra profundas, con una inversión total de USD Estados Unidos anunció la retirada de unos Minuto a minuto: la audiencia de Emilio Lozoya por el caso Odebrecht. Desde la cama del hospital en donde se encuentra internado, el ex director de Pemex en el sexenio de Enrique Peña Nieto presenta sus argumentos de defensa. El segundo paquete contra la crisis en EEUU divide a republicanos y demócratas a 48 horas del vencimiento de las ayudas por desempleo. Mientras el gobierno propone un recorte sustancial de los subsidios para incentivar a los despedidos a volver al mercado laboral, la oposición pide mantener los beneficios para impulsar el consumo y evitar que sigan subiendo los contagios de coronavirus. La Fiscalía chavista imputó a seis personas por el asesinato de un manifestante durante una protesta por falta de gasolina en Venezuela. De acuerdo con el Hürriyet, la piloto de la nave, Melike Kuvvet - primera piloto que tuvo la Fuerza Aérea Turca - solicitó a torres de control iraníes un aterrizaje de emergencia por "problemas técnicos". Los cuerpos de las 11 personas que viajaban a bordo del avión privado -ocho pasajeros y tres tripulantes- van a ser evacuados este lunes en helicóptero, adelantó el subdirector de la Media Luna Roja en la provincia de Chahar Mahal y Bajtiarí, Reza Zaherí..

Al día siguiente, crecieron las protestas, al igual que la violencia. El 15 de junio, millones de manifestantes marcharon por la Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord Azadi y Mousavi hizo su primera aparición después de las elecciones. Sin embargo, la oposición no aceptó esto y Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord protestas ocurrieron, aunque en menor escala. Al día siguiente, 20 de junio, menos manifestantes salieron a las check this out. En las protestas que ocurrieron, que se dice que suman decenas de miles de personas, se produjo mucha violencia, lo que provocó que muchos posibles manifestantes se quedaran en sus hogares al día siguiente, domingo 21 de junio.

Esto desencadenó una ola de protestas, sin tener en cuenta la prohibición del gobierno iraní de marchas callejeras. El jefe de inteligencia iraní alegó que las fuerzas occidentales y "sionistas" fueron responsables de incitar las protestas.

Las protestas se llevaron a cabo fuera del Parlamento durante la inauguración, y los manifestantes corearon "muerte al dictador". Las protestas importantes continuarían después de la inauguración también. Fuentes no identificadas dijeron que la policía irrumpió en la sede del IIPF y arrestó a varias personas. El periodista iraní Mashallah Shamsolvaezin afirmó que Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord candidato presidencial Mir-Hossein Mousavi fue puesto bajo arresto domiciliario, aunque las autoridades lo negaron.

El jefe de policía interino Ahmad-Reza Radan declaró a través del servicio de prensa estatal el 14 de junio que "en el interrogatorio de los rebeldes relacionados, tenemos la intención de encontrar el vínculo entre los conspiradores y los medios extranjeros".

Un portavoz del poder judicial dijo que no habían sido arrestados, pero que fueron convocados, "advertidos de no aumentar la tensión", y luego liberados. Vanessa blue free porn. The biodiversity of the Neotropics is considerable, but it is likely underestimated owing to gaps in sampling effort and a focus on using morphological features of animals to determine species differences rather than divergence in their mating signals and behavior.

Recent multi-trait analyses incorporating morphological, plumage, and vocal data have allowed for more accurate quantification of tropical biodiversity. We present a comprehensive Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord of morphological features, plumage, and vocalizations of the Neotropical resident Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons. Using morphological and spectral plumage measurements of field and museum specimens, as well as analyses of vocalizations from field recordings and sound libraries, we compared phenotypes of all 8 currently source Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies, with an emphasis on delattriirufifronsand salvini.

We found that delattrii and rufifrons differ significantly in morphology and plumage, and that salvini is similar to rufifrons in morphology and some plumage features.

Vocalizations fall into 2 distinct groups, delattrii and rufifrons-salviniwhich differ in multiple spectro-temporal characteristics with no overlap between them, even among individuals in the delattrii—rufifrons zone of sympatry. Our results therefore suggest that Rufous-capped Warblers comprise 2 distinct groups: Rufous-capped Warblers B.

Future genomic analysis of samples from multiple sites in Mexico and Central America will further refine our assessment of range-wide phenotypic and genetic divergence in this species complex. Presentamos un estudio integral de los rasgos morfológicos, del plumaje y de las vocalizaciones de la especie neotropical residente Basileuterus rufifrons. El estatus taxonómico de esta especie es controvertido porque la subespecie B.

Encontramos que delattrii y rufifrons difieren significativamente en morfología y plumaje, y que salvini Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord similar a rufifrons en morfología y algunos rasgos del plumaje. Nuestros resultados por consiguiente sugieren que B.

Based on song recordings, plumage reflectance and pattern analysis, and morphological measurements, we discovered that Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons comprise two distinct groups: Rufous-capped Warblers rufifrons group and B. The resulting taxonomic refinements allow researchers to more accurately describe tropical diversity and focus conservation efforts e.

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Although birds are well studied compared with other Neotropical taxa, particularly invertebrates, many historical subspecies descriptions were based on specimens collected prior to continue reading advent of audio recordings of vocalizations and the use of spectrometry to measure plumage color, and therefore morphology and subjective impressions of plumage coloration were the primary traits used for classification e.

Birdsong is now recognized to be a sexually selected mating signal Catchpole and Slaterand there is increasing evidence that song divergence between populations may promote reproductive Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord even when morphology and plumage vary little Toews and IrwinDingle et al.

Indeed, many cryptic species in both temperate and tropical regions have recently been described based primarily upon vocal differences e. However, a lack of range-wide data on vocalizations, particularly from hybrid or contact zones, means that taxonomic relationships remain unclear even for widespread species e. Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord order to assess the degree of reproductive isolation between closely related populations, researchers should therefore compare phenotypes both within and outside of secondary contact or hybrid zones.

Gradual or clinal variation in sexual signals could indicate interbreeding between groups, whereas abrupt changes could indicate reproductive isolation e.

The Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons is a common resident warbler species distributed from Arizona through Mexico and Central America, and into South America.

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Eight subspecies are recognized, 7 of which fall into 2 groups on the basis of their plumage features: 1 the northern, white-bellied rufifrons group of southern Arizona, Mexico, and western Guatemala B.

Songs of both males and females also differ between these 2 groups; songs in the rufifrons group feature more repetition of syllable types, whereas songs in the delattrii group have more variation in syllable Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord Howell and WebbCursonDemko and Mennill The eighth subspecies, B. However, comparisons of B. Furthermore, the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. Whereas birds in the delattrii group inhabit dry to semi-humid deciduous forest e.

Go here Based on the disputed status of B. Range distributions of the 8 recognized Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies.

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White-bellied B. The rufifrons group includes B. The range of intermediate-plumaged B. Photographs of adult Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons of 3 subspecies found in southern Mexico: B.

The first range-wide classification of this clade Ridgway considered all subspecies to comprise a single species because of the similar belly and upperpart coloration of the delattrii group and B. However, subsequent work classified the delattrii group as a separate species from the rufifrons group and B.

All subspecies were once again grouped together according to the work of Monroewho combined B. Source their field guide to Mexican birds, Howell Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord Webb favored a species split. They argued that: 1 B. They also reported that B. Recent fieldwork in this region Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord that B. Therefore, the critical final piece of the taxonomic puzzle will be to determine whether B. Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive study of Rufous-capped Warbler morphological, plumage, and vocal variation, click a particular focus on assessing whether B.

Www Xsexxx Watch SEX Movies Nudes sc. Miércoles 29 de Julio de Compartir en Facebook Compartir. Compartir en Twitter Tweet. Compartir en WhatsApp Compartir. Fernando Duclos. Ruta de la Seda. Así es la nueva moneda de 20 pesos: un tributo al puerto de Veracruz. We found that plumage color varies more than morphology among Rufous-capped Warblers, and that the differences between plumage groups vary depending on the plumage patch examined. According to our most conservative analysis, which assessed perceptual distinctiveness between plumage groups, the belly was the only distinct patch between all 3 groups. For the crown, nape, and rump, the delattrii and rufifrons groups were both distinct from one another, whereas B. For the breast and mantle, the delattrii group and B. Unlike the morphological comparisons, no plumage patches were perceptually similar between the rufifrons group and B. Our use of spectral measurements to analyze plumage color revealed that UV reflectance differed among plumage groups, with the delattrii group having higher overall UV reflectance i. Previous Rufous-capped Warbler taxonomic comparisons qualitatively described plumage colors and classified each subspecies based on their geographical ranges and subtle color variation relative to the reference subspecies B. Our analyses used quantitative spectrometry and avian visual models to confirm the overall differences and similarities in plumage characteristics described by earlier researchers, while also providing new insights into color variation which is invisible to human eyes e. The large variation in plumage coloration among subspecies and plumage groups could result from ecological selection, wherein plumage color evolves to maximize either conspicuousness or crypsis relative to the environment Endler and Théry , Doucet et al. All 3 plumage groups have particular habitat preferences; the rufifrons group prefers dry, open habitats, the delattrii group prefers dry to semi-humid, forested sites, and B. In the forested habitat of the delattrii group, olive-green upperparts would be more cryptic, whereas a deep red crown and yellow breast, which are potentially sexually selected signals, would be more conspicuous e. Furthermore, female mating preferences could result in plumage features such as a yellow B. A similar scenario occurred when yellow collar color introgressed into white-collared populations across a hybrid zone between Golden-collared Manakins Manacus vitellinus and White-collared Manakins M. However, since no confirmed hybrids exist between B. An intriguing finding of our plumage analysis was that although Rufous-capped Warblers appear sexually monochromatic to humans, several plumage patches are in fact sexually dichromatic. We found that females of the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. The presence of sexual dichromatism suggests that the crown may be a signal used in mate choice or sex recognition. Mate choice experiments using visual models of warblers with varying crown colors Baldassarre and Webster may be useful to further explore the role of these plumage patches as mating signals. Other sex-specific differences were found only in the delattrii group, providing further evidence that the delattrii group is distinct from the rufifrons group and B. Further research on little-studied monochromatic tropical species, particularly bright monochromatic species like the Rufous-capped Warbler, will likely reveal other cases of cryptic sexual dichromatism e. Male Rufous-capped Warbler songs separated distinctly into 2 groups: delattrii and rufifrons - salvini. These vocal differences further suggest that B. Male song is used to attract mates and defend territories Catchpole and Slater , and may therefore act as a strong isolating barrier even between closely related taxa without large morphological or plumage variation Toews and Irwin , Dingle et al. Indeed, a playback study in southern Mexico showed that both B. Observations in the sympatric zone also suggest that B. Further evidence for vocal divergence in sympatry is that among the subset of sympatric male songs measured in our study B. Future genetic analyses will assess the presence of gene flow between these 2 subspecies in sympatry. As with plumage divergence, the marked vocal divergence observed between the delattrii and rufifrons - salvini groups could result from ecological selection Wilkins et al. In Rufous-capped Warblers, the rufifrons group and B. Both types of songs would be expected to transmit well in their respective environments according to the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis Morton In Rufous-collared Sparrows Zonotrichia capensis , a similar pattern of vocal variation occurs wherein songs from open-habitat populations are lower frequency, narrower bandwidth, and contain longer, faster trills than songs from forest-dwelling populations Handford and Lougheed However, the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis is not universally supported across all Rufous-collared Sparrow populations Kopuchian et al. In Rufous-capped Warblers, it is also likely that ecological selection is not the sole explanation for population-level vocal differences since many song features, such as frequency, are inconsistent with the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis Morton A small study comparing habitat features of B. Since songs are similar within Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies in both sympatric and allopatric areas, further work should measure whether site-specific factors e. Additionally, our sample of songs was concentrated in southern Mexico and Costa Rica, so further recordings from sites throughout the Rufous-capped Warbler range, coupled with vegetation sampling, sound transmission experiments, and ambient noise measurements at the same sites, could clarify the role of ecological selection in shaping song structure in this species. Vocal divergence between Rufous-capped Warbler plumage groups was also apparent in female songs of both the delattrii and rufifrons groups, which differed from one another while being structurally similar to their male counterparts. Female delattrii songs are shorter, with fewer syllables and syllable types and higher maximum frequency than male songs Demko and Mennill These songs appear to serve a territory defense function in intense interactions such as playback-simulated conspecific territorial intrusions by pairs Demko and Mennill , yet are rarely used spontaneously Demko and Mennill Female rufifrons group songs were also shorter, with fewer syllables and higher maximum frequency, than male songs. The syllables themselves were also shorter, and of higher maximum frequency and larger bandwidth. Interestingly, female singing behavior of the 2 subspecies may also differ: B. Demko personal observation and sang more frequently in response to playback during an experimental study than did B. Given that female song is common yet poorly studied in tropical songbird species Stutchbury and Morton , Odom and Benedict , and that the delattrii and rufifrons groups appear to be vocally distinct based on our analyses, further investigations of female song in both groups would be informative to explore vocal evolution in the family Parulidae. Our research revealed that the rufifrons group and B. The low responses to other-subspecies song and apparent lack of inter-subspecies territoriality and hybridization in a sympatric zone between B. Our results therefore suggest the presence of 2 distinct groups within this species complex: the Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons , comprised of the 5 northern subspecies B. Ongoing genomic analyses of samples from the B. We thank A. Demarse, R. López Antonio, M. Morneau, and V. Vargas Herrera for field assistance in Costa Rica and Mexico. We thank G. Bastien for assistance in plumage measurements. We thank L. Szucki for creating warbler illustrations for Figure 1. For permission to access study areas, we thank local authorities, landowners, and park staff in the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Veracruz, Mexico. We thank R. We thank J. Author contributions: All authors formulated the research ideas; A. We also thank 2 anonymous reviewers for feedback, which improved the final manuscript. Data depository: Analyses reported in this article can be reproduced using the data provided by Demko et al. Aleixandre , P. Speciation on oceanic islands: Rapid adaptive divergence vs. Plos One 8 : e Google Scholar. Baldassarre , D. Webster Experimental evidence that extra-pair mating drives asymmetrical introgression of a sexual trait. Biological Sciences : Bastien , G. Ecogeographical and climatic predictors of geographical variation in plumage and morphology in Rufous-capped Warblers, Basileuterus rufifrons. Honours thesis, University of Windsor , Ontario, Canada. Google Preview. Benites , P. Campagna , and P. Tubaro Song-based species discrimination in a rapid Neotropical radiation of grassland seedeaters. Journal of Avian Biology 46 : 55 — Benjamini , Y. Hochberg Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Benkman , C. Divergent selection drives the adaptive radiation of crossbills. Evolution 57 : — Burns , K. Shultz Widespread cryptic dichromatism and ultraviolet reflectance in the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds: Implications of accounting for avian vision in the study of plumage evolution. The Auk : — Cadena , C. Cuervo Molecules, ecology, morphology, and songs in concert: How many species is Arremon torquatus Aves: Emberizidae? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99 : — Klicka , and R. Ricklefs Evolutionary differentiation in the Neotropical montane region: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches Aves, Emberizidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44 : — Catchpole , C. Slater Bird Song: Biological Themes and Variations , 2nd edition. Curson , J. Family Parulidae New World Warblers. In Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. Elliot , and D. Christie , Editors. Lynx Edicions , Barcelona, Spain. Demko , A. Mennill Male and female signaling behavior varies seasonally during territorial interactions in a tropical songbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 72 : Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons show seasonal, temporal and annual variation in song use. Ibis : — Sosa-López , and D. Subspecies discrimination on the basis of acoustic signals: A playback experiment in a Neotropical songbird. Animal Behaviour : 77 — Sosa-López , R. Simpson , S. Doucet , and D. Data from: Divergence in plumage, voice, and morphology indicates speciation in Rufous-capped Warblers Basileuterus rufifrons. Nació el 13 de noviembre de en Quedlinburg, Alemania Figura 1. Figura 1. Dorothea Christiane Erxleben. Sello germano de , "Serie de Mujeres en la historia alemana". Escribió la disertación "Una investigación profunda de las causas que evitan que el sexo femenino curse la universidad", la cual causó revuelo. Espera que su trabajo abra las puertas a futuras generaciones de mujeres dedicadas al estudio y alcancen estatus de seres humanos. Su trabajo fue publicado en por iniciativa de su padre y con el permiso del rey de Prusia Federico II, quien, ansioso por demostrar su progresividad en el rubro de la educación, declaró que Leporin podía matricularse en la Universidad de Halle. A pesar de la autorización real, Leporin nunca estudió medicina en una universidad y sus conocimientos y habilidades médicas los adquirió de su padre. Fue entonces cuando ejerció su derecho de recibir el título universitario. El 6 de mayo de contestó en perfecto latín las preguntas realizadas durante un examen profesional a título de suficiencia. Sin embargo, como no había antecedentes de mujeres tituladas, la Universidad esperó otro permiso real antes de darle la acreditación médica. La ceremonia se llevó a cabo el 12 de junio de en presencia del decano de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Halle, Johann Juncker, quien era un defensor de la educación para las mujeres. Elizabeth Blackwell fue la primera mujer estadounidense en titularse como médica e influyó en cientos de mujeres que siguieron sus pasos inspiradas por su tenacidad Figura 2. Figura 2. Elizabeth Blackwell, , retrato de Joseph Stanley Kozlowski. Fundó el New York Infirmary, primer hospital dirigido enteramente por médicas, lo cual brindaba a las mujeres la oportunidad de practicar lo que en otras instituciones se les negaba. Durante un viaje a Inglaterra conoció a Florence Nightingale, madre de la enfermería moderna. De retorno a América, gracias al donativo de 10 mil dólares hecho por el predicador Henry Ward Beecher, fundó la Escuela de Enfermería de Nueva York en mayo de Nombró a la doctora Rachel Cole, primera mujer afroamericana que se graduó de medicina en Estados Unidos, como su compañera en la dirección del establecimiento. Sus logros se difundieron a todas partes del mundo: mujeres de Rusia pedían ser admitidas en las escuelas de medicina de San Petersburgo; una joven había empezado a estudiar medicina en una escuela de Argel; el gobierno sueco solicitaba información porque en Estocolmo había 15 mujeres interesadas en estudiar medicina. En Inglaterra, las mujeres que deseaban estudiar medicina sufrían vejaciones, la prensa las llamaba "las siete sinvergüenzas", los estudiantes las atacaban y fueron expulsadas. Tras legar conceptos vanguardistas como el seguro contra la enfermedad y la vejez, el mejoramiento de las viviendas de los pobres y las cooperativas para disminuir el precio de los víveres, Blackwell falleció en , a los 89 años de edad. Matilde Petra Montoya Lafragua En nuestro país una mujer también tuvo un difícil camino por la medicina. Fue Matilde Montoya, reconocida como la primera mexicana graduada de la Escuela de Medicina de México. Matilde nació en la ciudad de México el 14 de mayo de Primero se inscribió en la carrera de Obstetricia y Partera, de la Escuela Nacional de Medicina, pero por problemas económicos tuvo que dejarla y en siguió en la Escuela de Parteras y Obstetras de la Casa de Maternidad, que atendía a las madres solteras. Viajó de nuevo a México y fue aceptada en la Escuela Nacional de Medicina a los 23 años, en Figura 3. Matilde Montoya acompañada por sus compañeros apodados Los Montoyos. Mina, cuyo padre Hüseyin Bazaran había bautizado con su nombre un lujoso conjunto residencial en Estambul, iba a casarse este abril por todo lo alto con el empresario turco Murat Gezer. El avión, un Bombardier CL propiedad del mismo holding Basaran, con activos en turismo, energía y construcción, despegó de Sharjah, rumbo a Estambul, el domingo a primera hora de la tarde. Entre los huelguistas estaba Daryush Shokof. Las huelgas de hambre son por la libertad de todos los presos políticos iraníes y por "no" reconocer las elecciones presidenciales y su presidente Mahmoud Ahmadinejad en Robert Redford se unió y apoyó la huelga de hambre en Washington el 20 de julio. BBC News describió la reacción general de la comunidad internacional a las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de como "silenciada". Su portavoz, Mohsen Makhmalbaf , criticó al presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, por mantener que la diferencia entre Ahmadinejad y Mousavi "puede no ser tan grande como se ha anunciado". Los manifestantes se han reunido en ciudades de todo el mundo para protestar. La violencia y los resultados electorales. Aunque las elecciones presidenciales iraníes de fueron ampliamente disputadas, el secretario general de la ONU, Ban Ki-moon, envió un mensaje de felicitación tradicional a Ahmadinejad tras su toma de posesión. En otro incidente, la activista prominente Akbar Ganji inició una huelga de hambre durante tres días frente a la ONU. Durante el descanso, se les ordenó retirarlos, siete de los ocho cumplieron. Posteriormente fueron suspendidos. Asimismo, el futbolista italiano Francesco Totti envió un mensaje de saludo a la juventud iraní durante las protestas. Un grupo de "artistas y escritores iraníes en el exilio" iraníes publicó una carta abierta en apoyo de las protestas. Se han llevado a cabo importantes protestas en las principales ciudades de todo el mundo. The Economist informó que los partidarios de Mousavi han alistado el simbolismo religioso de su lado. Esto apela directamente a la noción de injusticia y redención en el corazón del Islam chiíta. Otros, sin embargo, fueron irreligiosos en sus protestas. Las instituciones religiosas se usaban para comunicarse de un grupo revolucionario a otro. Estas instituciones consisten en "mezquitas, centros rituales e incluso fondos de caridad, y estos lugares permitieron que las personas se reunieran justo debajo de las narices del gobierno para organizarse. Los manifestantes se han vestido modestamente deliberadamente. The Time informó que algunos manifestantes creían que tenían el deber religioso de protestar. Al llorar la muerte de los manifestantes asesinados, los manifestantes corearon "La paz sea con el profeta Mahoma y su familia ". La fe chiita se fundó en la idea del sacrificio propio en la causa de la justicia. En un video filtrado de una reunión de los líderes de la Guardia Revolucionaria, declaró: "Fue un golpe que debilitó los pilares fundamentales del régimen Source Authors Original. Previous article Next article..

We measured Rufous-capped Warbler specimens from 11 natural history museums. The primary author A.

Latino pussy Watch PORN Videos Hot babes. En el Hospital conocí a una señorita que estaba estudiando medicina, se me pusieron los ojos del tamaño de un plato. En ingresó al Colegio Civil. Nos consideraban locas". Aunque sus padres la apoyaron para que estudiara medicina a su hermana menor se le permitió estudiar Leyes , nunca faltaron comentarios despectivos y críticas de una parte de la sociedad. Pero nosotras dimos a entender que no hubo cosas así vergonzosas acerca de las mujeres de mis tiempos, después no sé y ni quiero saber, pero éramos mujeres muy damas, en ese sentido sin nada de colorcitos distintos ni actitudes distintas. Yo gocé el privilegio de tener el respeto y el apoyo de mis compañeros de generación. Realizó su servicio social en Higueras y su examen profesional se efectuó los días 21 y 22 de marzo de Aprobó por unanimidad para convertirse en la novena mujer en obtener el título de médico cirujano y partero en el estado. Aunque lo normal para las doctoras era poner el rótulo "Enfermedades de mujeres y niños" en el exterior de su consultorio, la doctora Martínez Ortega fue la primera en optar por otra especialidad. Entonces estaba orgulloso de que ella hubiera podido realizar su sueño. Jackson, con quien realizó estudios de broncoesofagología a lo largo de un año; después fue a Nueva York, donde se acercó a la cirugía para la sordera; en Chicago realizó otros estudios de otorrinolaringología. De vuelta en México participó en 14 cursos de educación continua en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología de la Ciudad de México y cursó un año en el Instituto Nacional de Audiología al mismo tiempo que en el Instituto Mexicano para la Audición y el Lenguaje con el doctor Pedro Berruecos Tellez, e inició cursos de consejera de rehabilitación. Una vez jubilada continuaba frecuentando el Hospital Universitario derramando el dinamismo y alegría que la caracterizaron, hasta el 1 de mayo del , fecha en la que falleció. Es bien sabido que en la mayoría de las ocasiones quienes se empeñan en abrir nuevos caminos en cualquier rama son mal vistos y señalados por los que pretenden tener el control absoluto de las situaciones. No resulta extraño que fuera el presidente Díaz quien avaló a la doctora Montoya primero para sus estudios y luego para su titulación. En Monterrey no existió acoso u hostigamiento contra Catalina Olivo y las mujeres que siguieron sus pasos, aunque se les veía con curiosidad y extrañeza. Con el paso de los años y el arduo trabajo, las mujeres se han ido abriendo muchos espacios en los diversos campos de la educación, el trabajo profesional y en particular en la medicina. Cuadro 1 y 2. Correspondencia: Lic. Sandra Elizabeth Jaramillo Tallabs. Sala Museo Dr. Avenida Francisco I. Madero Pte. Teléfono: Correo electrónico: salahistorica hotmail. Inicio Medicina Universitaria Historias de vida. La mujer en la medicina. Follow us:. Issue Pages January Todas eran mujeres, incluidas las pilotos y la azafata. El vicegobernador de la provincia de Chaharmahal y Bajtiarí, Yafar Mardani, ha confirmado a la agencia oficial IRNA que los servicios de rescate han recuperado la caja negra y los cuerpos de diez de las once tripulantes - tres de ellos personal de cabina - de la nave privada siniestrada. The primary author A. A comparison between field and museum-collected data showed that some measurements differed significantly within a subspecies based on sampling method Supplementary Material Appendix A, Table S1. We therefore included the data collection method field or museum as a covariate in our morphological analyses. Although our combined field and museum dataset spanned the entire range distribution of the species and all documented subspecies, our primary focus was on southern Mexico and northern Central America Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador , the region where B. For each individual, we measured 6 standard morphological traits e. We measured wing and tail to the nearest 0. For each sex separately, we ran multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA and discriminant function analysis DFA to assess whether individuals could be reliably grouped into subspecies and plumage groups, and used the leave-one-out cross-validation method to determine the most diagnostic morphometric variables e. We analyzed data using 3 classifications: 1 all subspecies divided into 3 plumage-based groups yellow-bellied delattrii group, white-bellied rufifrons group, and B. As all 3 analyses yielded similar results, we present the results of the plumage groups analyses in the main text, and we present the results of the 3-subspecies and 8-subspecies analyses in the Supplementary Material. We also ran ANOVA comparing the wing-tail difference wing length minus tail length between groups, because of previous reports of between-subspecies variation in this trait; Todd reported that the rufifrons group have shorter wings than tails, whereas the delattrii group have longer wings than tails. We conducted all statistical analyses using R 3. We confirmed that the assumptions of each statistical test were met by examining histograms and scatterplots of original variables, and quantile-quantile Q-Q normal and residual plots of models Quinn and Keough Using these photographs, we described 2 plumage traits that have been reported to vary between subspecies. The first trait was the extent of white in the auricular; birds had either a white patch below the eye extending to the cheek, or a small white spot below the eye there were no birds with intermediate characteristics. The second trait was the extent of yellow plumage coverage on the breast and belly, calculated by dividing the total length from chin to lower edge of the yellow breast patch by the total body length from chin to cloaca, measured using the GIMP2 photo editor. A naïve observer, unfamiliar with subspecies variation in these traits, collected all measurements from photographs labeled without subspecies or location information, to avoid potential bias. Some specimens did not have a clear separation between yellow breast and white belly e. We used reflectance spectrometry to measure 10 plumage patches per specimen: belly, breast, crown, mantle upperparts , nape, rump, shoulder, tail, throat, and wing. In cases where a particular plumage patch was damaged or missing on a specimen e. The fiber-optic probe was fitted with a rubber tip to maintain the probe at a fixed distance of 5 mm from the surface being measured while excluding external light. We calibrated the readings using a Spectralon white standard Ocean Optics after every 10 specimens measured. To compare the coloration of each plumage patch by plumage group and sex, we used avian visual modeling, which calculates colors as birds see them using avian tetrachromatic color space models Goldsmith in the R pavo package Maia et al. We then calculated 4 standard color variables from avian tetrachromatic color space Stoddard and Prum in pavo Maia et al. We also used a receptor noise avian visual model Vorobyev and Osorio using the average UV-visible visual system, as above, to calculate and compare perceptual differences between plumage patches. Specifically, we calculated the Euclidean distances between the geometric means of each plumage patch, using Cartesian coordinates based on perceptually scaled distances Pike , such that all distances are in just noticeable differences JNDs; Vorobyev et al. We selected only high-quality songs for analysis i. Our sample size was songs from males 37 delattrii group, 75 rufifrons group, and 14 B. Using Adobe Audition 3. Specht, Berlin, Germany , we measured 14 acoustic variables commonly used to compare vocalizations of closely related avian taxa e. Syllable versatility is the ratio of the number of different syllable types to the total number of syllables, and is useful for quantifying the repetition rate of syllables within a song Gil and Slater Since Rufous-capped Warblers have highly variable songs with many syllable types Demko and Mennill , we chose to include both song- and syllable-based variables in our analysis to provide further resolution. For individual syllables, we measured minimum frequency, maximum frequency, peak frequency, and duration, and then calculated mean values across all syllables within a song. The spectrogram window settings used were fast Fourier transform FFT size of , time resolution of 1. To standardize measurements across songs, we measured all variables at a threshold amplitude of —20 dB from the peak amplitude. In rare cases where specific syllables could not be measured accurately at this threshold e. We measured song peak frequency from power spectra with a Hann window, FFT size of , and frequency resolution of To compare acoustic variation in male songs between plumage groups, we first calculated mean values of each variable within individuals to produce a single data point for each individual. We ran separate ANOVA for each variable to assess plumage group differences, and then conducted principal component analysis PCA with a correlation matrix and unrotated components to produce composite response variables based on all 14 spectro-temporal variables e. To assess whether individual songs could be accurately classified to our predefined plumage groups, we used DFA with leave-one-out cross-validation Cadena and Cuervo , Halley et al. We ran DFA using a subset of 8 non-collinear variables song duration, song minimum frequency, song maximum frequency, peak frequency, number of syllables, number of syllable types, syllable production rate, and syllable versatility. We excluded females from these analyses owing to small sample sizes of female songs; females sing far less often than males in this species Demko and Mennill To assess sex-specific differences in the rufifrons group and B. Rufous-capped Warblers showed range-wide variation in morphology between the delattrii and rufifrons groups for several characters. Overall, B. For males, the most diagnostic traits in the discriminant analysis were wing and tail length, which together classified Classification accuracy was high for both the delattrii of correct, or For B. Rufous-capped Warblers show morphological differences between the delattrii group yellow , rufifrons group gray , and B. Wing length A , B differed significantly, with the delattrii group having the longest wings and B. Tail length C , D was longer for the rufifrons group than the other 2 groups. In both males E and females F , the delattrii group had a positive wing-tail difference wing longer than tail and both the rufifrons group and B. For females, the most diagnostic trait based on discriminant analysis was wing length, which classified As with males, classification accuracy was high for both the delattrii 62 of 75 correct, or For both sexes, the only diagnosable trait was wing length between the delattrii group and B. Morphological measurements of male and female Rufous-capped Warblers according to plumage group yellow-bellied delattrii group, white-bellied rufifrons group, and B. The mean value was negative for both the rufifrons group and B. Results of the 3-subspecies and 8-subspecies morphological analyses showed similar patterns and are presented in Supplementary Material Appendices B and C. Rufous-capped Warbler subspecies in the same plumage group shared similar facial and underpart color patterns, corroborating previous descriptions Ridgway , Todd All birds in the rufifrons group and B. Some individuals of 2 rufifrons group subspecies By contrast, all birds in the delattrii group had all-yellow breasts and bellies. Rufous-capped Warblers differed in coloration between plumage groups in all 10 spectrally measured plumage patches Supplementary Material Table S4. The crowns of the rufifrons group and B. Using values collected with reflectance spectrometry, the crowns of the delattrii group had significantly more red-shifted color i. The rufifrons group had more saturated crowns i. Overall crown color, as measured by Euclidean distances units in JNDs between patches, differed between both sexes of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, and between males of the delattrii group and B. Plumage color descriptions by body region in B. Euclidean distances in just noticeable differences JNDs between plumage groups for male and female Rufous-capped Warblers. The throats and upper breasts of the rufifrons group and B. By contrast, the delattrii group had golden yellow throats, breasts, and bellies Table 2. For the belly, all 3 groups differed significantly in hue theta, hue phi, and r achieved, with the delattrii group having the highest values i. Overall belly color was perceptually different between both sexes of all 3 groups Table 3. For the breast, the delattrii group and B. UV reflectance hue phi differed significantly across all 3 groups, with the delattrii group having the highest values and the rufifrons group having the lowest values. Finally, the delattrii group had significantly higher luminance values than both the rufifrons group and B. The rufifrons group differed perceptually in overall breast color from both the delattrii group and B. For the throat, there were no significant differences in hue theta or luminance, although r achieved differed significantly across all 3 groups, with B. Overall throat color differed perceptually between both sexes of the delattrii group and B. Rufous-capped Warblers show plumage color differences between the delattrii group yellow , rufifrons group gray , and B. Four color features are shown for both males and females: hue theta A , hue phi B , r achieved C , and luminance D , between the bellies of Rufous-capped Warblers of the delattrii group, rufifrons group, and B. Remaining plumage patches are shown in the Supplementary Material. The mantle color varied from olive in the delattrii group to olive-gray in the rufifrons group, whereas B. The delattrii group had significantly more saturated, less bright mantles i. Hue theta and hue phi differed significantly between all 3 groups, with the highest values, or most green-shifted color, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or most yellow-shifted color, for the rufifrons group Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figure S4. Overall mantle color differed perceptually between the rufifrons group and both the delattrii group and B. The napes of the rufifrons group and B. All 3 groups differed significantly in hue theta and hue phi, with the highest values, or green-shifted color with higher UV reflectance, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or yellow-shifted color with lower UV reflectance, for the rufifrons group. Luminance was higher for both the rufifrons group and B. Overall nape color differed perceptually between the delattrii and rufifrons groups, whereas B. The rumps and shoulders of the delattrii group and B. For both patches, all 3 groups differed in hue theta and hue phi, with the highest values, or green-shifted color with higher UV reflectance, for the delattrii group, and the lowest values, or yellow-shifted color with lower UV reflectance, for the rufifrons group. For the rump, the delattrii group had more saturated color higher r achieved than the rufifrons group and B. The groups did not differ in luminance for either rump or shoulder, or in r achieved for shoulder Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figures S6, S7. All 3 groups were perceptually different in overall rump color except for males of the delattrii group and B. Overall shoulder color differed perceptually between both sexes of the delattrii and rufifrons groups, and between females of the rufifrons group and B. The tail and wing patches were dusky gray in all individuals, with yellow-green feather borders in the rufifrons group and B. For the tail, the delattrii group had higher UV reflectance hue phi and lower r achieved than both the rufifrons group and B. The luminance was higher for B. However, overall tail color was perceptually similar between all 3 groups based on Euclidean distances in JNDs Table 3. For the wing, all 3 groups differed in UV reflectance hue phi , with the delattrii group having the highest and the rufifrons group having the lowest values, and for r achieved and luminance, with B. The delattrii group had higher hue theta values, or more green-shifted color, than the rufifrons group Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5 ; Figure S9. Overall wing color was perceptually different between the delattrii group and B. Using the bootstrap resampling analysis to further test whether plumage patches were perceptually distinct to the warblers in addition to our Euclidean distance analyses above , the belly color was perceptually distinct between all 3 groups. For the breast and mantle, the rufifrons group was perceptually distinct from both the delattrii group and B. For the crown, nape, and rump, only the delattrii and rufifrons groups were perceptually distinct. For the wing, only the delattrii group and B. For the shoulder, tail, and throat, none of the groups were perceptually distinct from one another. Rufous-capped Warbler plumage color differed significantly between the sexes for the crown, mantle, nape, tail, and wing Supplementary Material Table S4. Males of all 3 groups had greater UV reflectance in the crown and tail i. There were significant collection year effects for all plumage patches, indicating an influence of specimen age on reflectance. Hue theta values decreased significantly towards zero with age for all plumage patches except for the crown and tail; in other words, hue became more yellow-shifted with increased specimen age. The amount of UV reflectance hue phi decreased significantly with increased age for all plumage patches. The saturation r achieved increased significantly with age for the belly, breast, crown, nape, rump, shoulder, and tail, whereas it decreased significantly for the throat and was similar across ages for the mantle and wing. Brightness luminance decreased significantly with age for the belly, breast, and throat; increased with age for the crown, tail, and wing; and was similar across ages for the mantle, nape, rump, and shoulder Supplementary Material Tables S4, S5. Results of the 3-subspecies plumage analyses showed similar patterns and are presented in Supplementary Material Appendix D. Rufous-capped Warbler songs differed significantly in both acoustic structure and organization among plumage groups Table 4 , with the delattrii group being well-differentiated from the rufifrons group and B. For 13 of the 14 measured variables, the delattrii group differed significantly from the rufifrons group and B. Positive loadings corresponded to song duration, number of syllables, and syllable production rate, whereas negative loadings corresponded to all other variables Supplementary Material Table S2. Therefore, songs with positive PC1 scores rufifrons group and B. Songs with negative PC1 scores delattrii group; Figure 5B , D , F were shorter and slower paced, had fewer syllables but more variety of syllable types, were higher in frequency at both the song and syllable level, and had longer, wider bandwidth syllables. No se consideran miembros de pleno derecho de la Guardia Revolucionaria, y carecen del entrenamiento que se les da a los miembros de tiempo completo, aunque pueden ser convocados en cualquier momento para ayudar a las fuerzas regulares en tiempos de problemas. A pesar de que los reformistas obtuvieron una mayoría en Majlis en y que Khatami también ganó las elecciones de , Khamenei se opondría a cualquier intento de liberalización del gobierno o la sociedad. Viva el movimiento de reforma". Ahmadinejad enfocaría su presidencia en confrontar a Israel. Sus discursos ganaron la infamia internacional, que generalmente pedía la destrucción de Israel y afirmaba que el Holocausto fue fabricado. Como resultado, las Naciones Unidas han impuesto sanciones al gobierno iraní, que ha tenido un fuerte impacto en la economía, reduciendo el valor del rial de un mínimo de 8, por dólar en a 10, por dólar en Ahmadinejad comenzó una campaña de privatización de empresas estatales, pero la mayoría de las empresas terminaron en manos de funcionarios y fundaciones bonyads conectados por el gobierno. El Ministerio de Petróleo otorgó a IRGC miles de millones de dólares en contratos, así como en importantes proyectos de infraestructura. Las numerosas encuestas iraníes muestran una amplia gama de resultados diferentes. Una opinión en el New York Times afirma que esto se debe a la alta fluctuación entre los votantes durante la temporada de campaña. La elección para la presidencia tuvo lugar el 12 de junio de A diferencia de la elección de , la elección de contó con una alta participación. Los resultados de las elecciones se anunciaron solo 2 horas después del final de las votaciones, lo que puede parecer imposible. Los resultados oficiales fueron rechazados por los tres candidatos de la oposición, quienes afirmaron que los votos fueron manipulados y que las elecciones fueron manipuladas. Los candidatos Mohsen Rezaee y Mousavi han presentado quejas oficiales. Mebane Jr. El grupo de expertos con sede en el Reino Unido, Chatham House, también sospechó fraude en el proceso de votación por varias razones:. Al día siguiente, crecieron las protestas, al igual que la violencia. El 15 de junio, millones de manifestantes marcharon por la calle Azadi y Mousavi hizo su primera aparición después de las elecciones. Sin embargo, la oposición no aceptó esto y las protestas ocurrieron, aunque en menor escala. Al día siguiente, 20 de junio, menos manifestantes salieron a las calles. En las protestas que ocurrieron, que se dice que suman decenas de miles de personas, se produjo mucha violencia, lo que provocó que muchos posibles manifestantes se quedaran en sus hogares al día siguiente, domingo 21 de junio. Esto desencadenó una ola de protestas, sin tener en cuenta la prohibición del gobierno iraní de marchas callejeras. El jefe de inteligencia iraní alegó que las fuerzas occidentales y "sionistas" fueron responsables de incitar las protestas. Las protestas se llevaron a cabo fuera del Parlamento durante la inauguración, y los manifestantes corearon "muerte al dictador". Las protestas importantes continuarían después de la inauguración también. Miércoles 29 de Julio de Compartir en Facebook Compartir. Compartir en Twitter Tweet. Compartir en WhatsApp Compartir. Fernando Duclos. Ruta de la Seda. Así es la nueva moneda de 20 pesos: un tributo al puerto de Veracruz..

A comparison between field and museum-collected data showed that entremont esposa disfunción sexual measurements differed significantly within a subspecies based on sampling method Supplementary Material Appendix A, Table S1.

We therefore included the data collection method field or museum as a covariate in our morphological analyses. Although our combined field and museum dataset spanned the entire range distribution of the species and all documented subspecies, our primary focus was on southern Mexico and northern Central America Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvadorthe region where B. For each individual, we go here 6 standard morphological traits e.

We measured wing and tail to the nearest 0. For each sex separately, we ran multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA and discriminant function analysis DFA to assess whether individuals could be reliably grouped into subspecies and plumage groups, and used the leave-one-out cross-validation method to determine the most diagnostic morphometric variables e.

Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord analyzed data using 3 classifications: 1 all subspecies divided into 3 plumage-based groups yellow-bellied delattrii group, white-bellied rufifrons group, and B. As all 3 analyses yielded similar results, we present the results of the plumage groups analyses in the main text, and we present the results of the 3-subspecies and 8-subspecies analyses in the Supplementary Material.

We also ran ANOVA comparing the wing-tail difference wing length minus tail length between groups, because of previous reports of between-subspecies variation in this trait; Todd reported that the rufifrons group have shorter wings than tails, whereas the Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord group have longer wings than tails. We conducted all statistical analyses using R 3. We confirmed that the assumptions of each statistical test were met by examining histograms and scatterplots of original variables, and quantile-quantile Q-Q normal and residual plots of models Quinn and Keough Using these photographs, we described 2 plumage traits that have been reported to vary between subspecies.

The first trait was the extent of white in the auricular; birds had either a white patch below the eye extending to the cheek, Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord a small white spot below the eye there were no birds with intermediate characteristics. The second trait was the extent of yellow plumage coverage on the breast and belly, calculated by dividing the total length from chin to lower edge of the yellow breast patch by the total body length from chin to cloaca, measured using the GIMP2 photo editor.

A naïve observer, unfamiliar with subspecies variation in these traits, collected all measurements from photographs labeled without subspecies or location information, to avoid potential bias. Some specimens did not have a clear separation between yellow breast and white belly e. We used reflectance spectrometry to measure 10 plumage patches per specimen: belly, breast, crown, mantle upperpartsnape, rump, shoulder, tail, throat, and wing.

In cases where a particular plumage patch was damaged or missing on a specimen e. The fiber-optic probe was fitted with a rubber tip to maintain the probe at a fixed distance of 5 mm from the surface being measured while excluding external light.

We calibrated the readings using a Spectralon Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord standard Ocean Optics after every 10 specimens measured.

To compare the coloration of each plumage patch by plumage group and sex, we used avian visual modeling, which calculates colors as birds see them using avian tetrachromatic color space models Goldsmith in the R pavo package Maia et al. We then calculated 4 standard color variables from avian tetrachromatic color space Stoddard and Prum in pavo Maia et al. We also used a receptor learn more here avian visual model Vorobyev and Osorio using the average UV-visible visual system, as above, to calculate and compare perceptual differences between plumage patches.

Specifically, we calculated the Euclidean distances between the geometric means of each plumage patch, using Cartesian coordinates based on perceptually scaled distances Pikesuch that all distances are in just noticeable Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord JNDs; Vorobyev et this web page. We selected only high-quality songs for analysis i. Our sample size was songs from males 37 delattrii group, Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord rufifrons group, and 14 B.

Using Adobe Audition 3. Specht, Berlin, Germanywe measured 14 acoustic variables commonly used to compare vocalizations of closely related avian taxa e. Syllable versatility is the ratio of the number of different syllable types to the total number of syllables, and is useful for quantifying the repetition rate of syllables within a song Gil and Slater Since Rufous-capped Warblers have highly variable songs with many syllable types Demko and Mennillwe chose to include both song- and syllable-based variables in our analysis to provide further resolution.

For individual syllables, we measured minimum frequency, maximum frequency, peak frequency, and duration, and then calculated mean values across all syllables within a song. The spectrogram window settings used were fast Fourier transform FFT size oftime resolution of 1. To standardize measurements across songs, we measured all variables at a threshold amplitude of —20 dB from the peak amplitude.

In Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord cases where specific syllables could not be measured accurately at this threshold e. We measured song peak frequency from power spectra with a Hann window, FFT size ofand frequency resolution of To compare acoustic variation in male songs between plumage groups, we first calculated mean values of each variable within individuals to produce a single data point for each individual. We ran separate ANOVA for each variable to assess plumage group differences, and then conducted principal component analysis PCA with a correlation matrix and unrotated components to produce composite response variables based on all 14 spectro-temporal variables e.

To assess whether individual songs could be accurately classified to our predefined plumage groups, we used DFA with leave-one-out cross-validation Cadena and CuervoHalley et al.

We ran DFA using a subset of 8 non-collinear variables song duration, song minimum frequency, song maximum frequency, peak frequency, number of syllables, number of syllable types, syllable production rate, and syllable versatility. We excluded females from these analyses owing to small sample sizes of female songs; females sing far less often than males in this species Demko and Mennill To assess sex-specific differences in the rufifrons group and B.

Rufous-capped Warblers showed range-wide variation in morphology between the delattrii and rufifrons groups for several characters. Overall, B. For males, Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord most diagnostic traits in the discriminant analysis were wing and tail length, which together classified Classification accuracy was high for both the delattrii Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord correct, or For B.

Rufous-capped Warblers show morphological differences between the Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord group yellowrufifrons group grayand B. Wing length AB differed significantly, with the delattrii group having the longest wings and B. Tail length CD was longer for the rufifrons group than the other 2 groups.

In both males E and females Fthe delattrii group had a positive wing-tail difference wing longer than tail and both the rufifrons group and B. For females, the most diagnostic trait based on discriminant analysis was wing length, which classified As with males, classification accuracy was high for both the delattrii 62 of 75 correct, or For both sexes, the only diagnosable trait was wing length between the delattrii group Sexo al costado en Shar e Kord B.

Morphological measurements of male and female Rufous-capped Warblers according to plumage group yellow-bellied delattrii group, white-bellied rufifrons group, and B. How to fuck a bich.

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